Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Responsibility for the murder of King Duncan? Essay

It is hard to decide which of the two characters, Macbeth or Lady Macbeth, holds the most responsibility for the murder of King Duncan, as it is possible to think of both of them being equally to blame. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are both very ambitious characters and this will be looked at in this essay as part of the analysis of their contribution to Duncan’s murder. This essay will show how Lady Macbeth continuously influences Macbeth and Macbeth follows her every instruction. My essay will discuss both characters’ involvement and it will determine which one is the most culpable for King Duncan’s death. My first point will look at how Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth to continue developing the plan for King Duncan’s demise. The first time that we see Lady Macbeth playing a part in the murder, is her reaction to the content of Macbeth’s letter. Immediately after reading the letter her initial decision is that, Macbeth must become king and she shows great determination, this can be supported with: â€Å"and shalt be / What thou art promised;† Merely a short time later Lady Macbeth says, â€Å"To catch the nearest way.† By this she means that Macbeth must become king by any means necessary. Yet she is not convinced that Macbeth is capable of committing the crime himself and so she goes onto say she will: â€Å"Pour my spirits in thine ear.† In this she is expressing how she will tell Macbeth what to do, and we can be sure that she is already developing a plan in order to claim the crown, and this can be seen when she says, â€Å"To have thee crowned withal.† Lady Macbeth is also trying to give Macbeth some of her character, as she does not believe that he could commit the murder without her help. The audience can see Lady Macbeth’s language symbolising evil when she says, â€Å"blanket of the dark.† Lady Macbeth wants the blanket to be dark because light would represent God and goodness and not killing Duncan, whereas Lady Macbeth needs darkness and Satan to help her to plan the deed. The blanket represents a cloud obscuring her conscience and preventing her from realising that her intended murder is wrong. Lady Macbeth’s conscience knows that murder is wrong but wants to call upon the supernatural powers to stop her conscience. This makes her guiltier as she understands how wrong the murder is and yet still wants to continue. It is clear that Lady Macbeth has not only got Macbeth’s interests at heart and is fully aware that she would become queen if Macbeth carries out the murder of Duncan. Just before this Lady Macbeth talks of wanting Macbeth to hurry home: â€Å"Hie thee hither,† We can conclude that this means Lady Macbeth wants the assassination to be carried out as soon as possible. During this passage we can clearly see Lady Macbeth for who she really is, and this is the first time that she is introduced to the play and immediately she reveals herself as being a deceitful and malicious character. Macbeth too shows his wicked nature when he looks to the witches for advice and information, and says, â€Å"Stay, you imperfect speakers. Tell me more.† Even though Macbeth knows that the witches are evil and are related to Satan, he wants to know more about the prophecies. Macbeth also feeds lines to Banquo so that Banquo will confirm what Macbeth wants to hear, â€Å"You shall be king.† Macbeth cannot believe that the witches have prophesised that he will become king when he says, â€Å"To be king / Stands not within the prospect of belief,† However what Banquo says does not stop Macbeth’s determination later in the play. Macbeth is desperate to hear more from the witches and to know more about being king, when he says, â€Å"Speak, I charge you.† The witches then disappear, and after the departure Macbeth discovers that another prophecy is found to be true. Macbeth believes the witches and ignores Banquo’s warnings that the prophecies are rooted in evil: â€Å"What, can the devil speak true?† Banquo does not want to have faith in the witches and believes that they are dangerous. In contrast Macbeth believes that he will be king even though the prophecies are a dangerous basis for his actions. Lady Macbeth decides to ignore the danger of the witches when she calls upon supernatural powers to help her: â€Å"Take my milk for gall.† It is clear from this that Lady Macbeth wants to rid her body of anything that may potentially hold her back from committing the deed. Clearly Lady Macbeth is desperate to be able to arrange the murder, and believes that by calling upon supernatural powers it will be possible, when Lady Macbeth says, â€Å"Come, thick night, / And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell,† and, â€Å"No compunctious visitings of nature / Shake my fell purpose,† The audience can see Lady Macbeth’s language becoming increasingly evil when she says, â€Å"thick night,† and â€Å"smoke of hell,† Lady Macbeth wants to have a dark night for the deed to occur, so that there is secrecy for the deed. She knows that if the night is dark then she will feel dark inside her and this will help her to perform the murderous action, this is an example of pathetic fallacy. Lady Macbeth says that the smoke is from hell and this represents the passion and desire and her evil desire to work with Satan on this sinful deed. Hell is also described as being torturous and burning, so â€Å"smoke of hell† is very evil language that Lady Macbeth uses. Then when Lady Macbeth hears of King Duncan’s arrival, she does not think of preparations for his stay but of his death: â€Å"He brings great news.† Her murderous plot can now continue, and we also see that Lady Macbeth is unwilling to let destiny take its course and wants to make her own future. This thought continues through the whole play up until the final point where the murder is committed, which can be seen when she says, â€Å"I feel now the future in the instant.† Macbeth also wants to make his own destiny and shows his first thought of murder when he says, â€Å"My thought, whose murder† This is halfway through Macbeth’s speech having just met the three witches, and Macbeth thinks of killing Duncan again when saying, â€Å"Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair.† This idea has not been put into Macbeth’s mind by anyone other than himself. Macbeth becomes very confused and disorientated in his understanding of what is right and what is wrong, shown when he says, â€Å"This supernatural soliciting / Cannot be ill cannot be good.† When saying, â€Å"This supernatural soliciting,† Shakespeare is showing that Macbeth knows that the witches have sought him. However is unsure as to whether he thinks it to be good or bad. Macbeth does not want to be associated with the witches however he also likes the idea of being king and is torn between right and wrong. Right and wrong continue to be blurred in his mind through the play up until Macbeth actually commits the murder of King Duncan. Macbeth is trying to say that what he can imagine is so horrific that it is worse than what could happen in life now, when he says, â€Å"Present fears / Are less than horrible imaginings.† Soon after the three witches have left Macbeth shows a greedy desire: â€Å"Two truths are told,† This particularly gluttonous desire continues throughout the play. Macbeth clearly knows that there would be great results for him, and his wife as a consequence of King Duncan’s demise, and this can be seen when he says, â€Å"With his surcease, success,† However, Macbeth does not think about this much longer as Banquo discourages him for thinking about the prophecies any more when saying, â€Å"Time and hour runs through the roughest day.† Yet Macbeth continues to think of the prophecies when he writes a letter to his wife. Having received the letter from Macbeth, Lady Macbeth chooses the path of persuading Macbeth to bring to an end any doubts about the murder. Firstly her main involvement, which is her consistent influence on Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is questioning Macbeth’s bravery and calling him a coward when saying, â€Å"Wouldst thou have that / Which thou esteem’st the ornament of life,† She then continues to call Macbeth a coward when she goes on to say, â€Å"Live a coward in thine own esteem,† Now Lady Macbeth tries to undermine Macbeth: â€Å"What beast was it then/ That made you break this enterprise to me?† Lady Macbeth is telling Macbeth that she would do anything for him and so he must also, when she says, â€Å"Had I so sworn / As you have done to this.† Lady Macbeth is using a variety of tactics to try and manipulate Macbeth to murder King Duncan, as best she can, which is eventually successful. Once Macbeth is fully coerced to the idea of committing the murder, he still has reservations. Lady Macbeth then reveals that she has schemed a plan and this is when she says, â€Å"What cannot you and I perform upon / Th’unguarded Duncan?† Showing how Lady Macbeth decides that murder is the best option as it is already planned, and that she is so keen on the idea. The whole murder is developed down to whom they shall blame it upon: â€Å"His spongy officers, who shall bear the guilt / of our great quell?† Showing Lady Macbeth’s incredible determination to continue with the murder, despite Macbeth’s worries. However, once Lady Macbeth embeds the plan into Macbeth’s mind, he continues to carry out the murder, following her instructions. This can be seen when Macbeth has a hallucination of a dagger in front of him. Macbeth is very confused when he says, â€Å"A dagger of the mind, a false creation,† and also â€Å"Witchcraft celebrates / Pale Hecate’s off’rings,† His language shows that there is evil within him and it is not just coming from external sources, such as the witches. Macbeth is talking to the dagger, and revealing that it leads him to what he wants to do, to murder King Duncan, when he says, â€Å"Thou marshall’st me the way I was going,† Macbeth knows what he is going to do, when he says, â€Å"On thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood.† This is his conscience trying to crush the idea, telling him that he is going to commit a murder and that it is morally wrong. â€Å"Horror†, â€Å"fatal vision†, â€Å"bloo dy business† and â€Å"wicked dreams abuse.† The language shows that Shakespeare portrays Macbeth as being absolutely evil, and this is because these words relate to the murder of King Duncan and show that the evil has risen from within Macbeth himself. When Macbeth prepares to commit the murder he has a fear that he may be discovered and that people will realise it was him who murdered King Duncan and not the guards who are to be blamed, this is when he says, â€Å"Hear not my steps, which way they walk,† As Macbeth leaves to commit the murder his last words are, â€Å"Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell / That summons thee to heaven or to hell.† Here Macbeth is cold, determined and purposeful, and Macbeth does not show any doubt as he leaves to carry out the deed at the end of the soliloquy. This essay clearly shows which character is most responsible for the demise of Duncan. Evidently Lady Macbeth is responsible in the way that she was determined at all times and only had one momentary doubt throughout the whole play. Looking at the consequences after the murder, Lady Macbeth does go on to kill herself. This illustrates that Lady Macbeth regrets the decision that she made and that she bears the guilt of the murder. In contrast to this Macbeth committed the crime without any doubt even though he had doubted before he was coerced to continue with the murder. Having murdered once Macbeth continued to murder, seeming to have acquired a taste for it, supplying us with the evidence that Macbeth was more responsible for the murder, due to his actually carrying out the deed and continuing to murder other innocent parties without a second thought.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Songs of Suicide

As usual, nearly all the children loved lunch time. The younger children played small games, and the older boys would enjoy a friendly game of football, showing off to the girls, and the girls would chat and laugh about the rumours they had heard over the weekend, looking at the boys and decided who they thought were best looking or who they thought were really nice. As usual, the teachers would shout across the field, at the group of kids standing in the corner, lighting up a regular cigarette and as usual, there were the group of good people, or bofs as they were often called by the rest of the school, as they hid their heads in a book, and giggled at the site of a boy. But Everyone had their friendship groups, some clever, some stupid, some friendly, some not, but everyone had their friendship groups, except Justin. Justin was often referred to as a loner, or a weirdo or something that you wouldnt really like to be named. He sat in the corner of the cloakroom every lunch, every break, and in lessons, he wouldnt answer if any one talked to him, he would just look at then plainly, as if he couldnt see them, as if they were a ghost. He was always very pale, and always kept to himself, listening to his music, and writing in a small blue book who no one had ever read or seen except himself. He was a clever child, but the only lesson he seemed to participate in were music lessons. He wrote his way through books and books of songs, poems and lyrics, and could play any instrument which was presented to him. But he never seemed to be prepared to show his talent to anyone. ‘Oi, Justin, give us ya book, or ya diary, or whatever it is,' yelled mark across the field, and everyone watched and laughed at Justin, calling names and making fun out of him, not being aware of his feelings. Justin just turned away and carried on scribbling notes into his book, and then stopping, chewed his pen for a while, scribbled some words out, then wrote down another sentence, then smiled to himself, drew a line and turned the page. The bell rang and people started trailing into the classrooms, mumbling words as the bofins ran past and sat at the front of the class, with their books out ready and sat up straight, ready for the teacher to walk in. The girls then trailed in followed by the footballers, chatting away with each other, and every so often, a laugh, or a scream. Following them, Justin walked in, clenching his small blue book, and looking at each person, with a stare in his eyes, like he was analysing the way they act, or walk, or talk. He sat at the back in the corner, away from the rest of the class. About five minutes later, the smokers trailed in, chatting with a bit of strong language added in, and the scent of cigarettes filled the classroom. As the teacher marched in, the people at the front jumped up, followed by the rest of the class including justin, who mumbled ‘Good Morning sir' over their breaths. As the work started, random objects were thrown in the direction of Justin, usually hitting his desk, chair or even himself, but he didnt move. He just let it happen and dealt with it. Notes were passed to him with rude, agressive words on them, threatning sometimes, but never did he stir, he just scribbled some notes down that the teacher was making, then carried on writing is his little blue book. The end of school bell finally rang, and the classes were dismissed. Everyone left and trailed off home, including Justin, who walked 4 miles to get home, in the summer or winter, no matter what the weather was like. As he arrived home, he let himself in, often the door was left open, if his father had forgotten to close it behind him. He dragged his school bag up the small cluttered stairs, collecting the dust on the way. His mother had died at an early age and his father had become violent with drink since she had passed away. He had always blamed Justin, even thought he was only 3 years old when she died. He always said if he wasnt born, she would still be alive. He got into his room, where the walls were painted plain black, but could often not be seen by the amount of band pictures and posters which had been pasted over his walls. This was Justins personal space, and no one ever came in his room. His music could be played loudly and he could keep to himself in their as his dad couldnt easily get up the stairs so his slept on the cigarette burnt, old, tatty sofa downstairs. Justin stayed up there all night, until he woke up in the mornings, and went downstairs to find some food he could scrape out of the cupboards, or some spare money so he could buy some food from the corner shop on his way to school before his dad came downstairs. If his dad caught him, he would be punished, which was that morning. At 6 :00, Justin crept downstairs, and past his father sleeping on the sofa, and into the so called kitchen. He opened the cupboard and found some change, three pounds to be exact which he picked up an swand round, pleased with his find, but as he turned around, his father was stood in the doorway. ‘What you doing there with my money Justin ?!' asked his father ‘Just going to buy something to eat dad' Justin mumbled shakily under his breath. ‘And you were going to take my food money were you ?' ‘No dad, i†¦i just †¦ i was going to pay it back' said Justin, starting to panic now. ‘Yeah Justin, you were really going to pay it back. I know you Justin, always taking my money, never paying it back, probably hoping i will starve so you dont have to live here anymore. You dont care about me do you Justin ?' ‘I do dad. I just need some food' ‘Not out of my money you dont, you selfish child !' shouted his father as he lifted his fist to justin and knocked him over. Justin grabbed his school bag, and ran out of the house straight to school. It was early and the teachers were just arriving. His eye had swelled up and had gone black. He got out his blue book, and wrote down a diary entry and some more lyrics to finish up his song. The he saw Mark coming down the road. He ran to the unused toilets and locked himself in. This was the place he felt safe, other than his bedroom. No one ever came into the toilets, not even the cleaners, because they hadnt been used for about 6 months, since there had been more toilets built inside the main building. He could sit in the toilets for hours, just thinking to himself, and writing in his blue book, and not having to bother about any one else. ‘Wheres Justin ?' asked the teacher when the bell had rung. No one really knew because he didnt have any friends. Some nonsence was mumbled under peoples breaths about him, but no one really had any clue where he was. ‘I saw him before school , outside, by the gate. His eye was swolen, Miss, i duno what he had been doin.' Shouted Mark from the back of the class. Louise walked into the old toilet block with her friends behind her. This was where they were planning on having a cigarette and as they hadn't been used for 3 years, not many people entered. ‘Pass a cigarette, Chris.' Shouted Ryan from the other side of the toilet block. ‘I wonder if any of these toilets still work.' Mentioned Louise to Greg. ‘Dunno, lets go have a look at them, bet there disgusting,' answered Greg. So Gred pushed each door open quickly an peeked inside, looking at the mess they were in, the graffiti on the walls and the broken doors and toilet seats. ‘This ones locked,' said Greg. ‘Nah, it cant be, have a look over, see if theres something in the way.' As Greg looked over, he saw a boy, sat on the floor, writing in a book. He looked behind him to see if it was any of his friends, but they were all stood there, looking at him, waiting for him to open the door. He glanced back. The boy was gone and the door swung open. ‘Who the hell was that ?' shouted Greg, feeling a bit shaken up and his friends looking at him puzzled. ‘There was†¦there†¦i†¦i just saw a ghost.' And there on the floor, was a small blue book, in neat condition, with a name on the outside. Justin Holdsworth.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Are Trickle-Down Economics a Viable Theory in Today's Economy Research Paper

Are Trickle-Down Economics a Viable Theory in Today's Economy - Research Paper Example The people, in turn, will have more money to spend in the economy.†2 Therefore, are trickle-down economics a viable theory in today’s economy? The average person has no concept of why anyone would give huge tax breaks to the wealthy. This argument has been prevalent since the rich has taken advantage of economic freedoms to increase their profits. It seems only fair to the ordinary taxpayer that they should give back a larger share than those who are not wealthy. This theory is the basis for the progressive income tax within the United States. The government taxes the higher tax brackets when their income increases in excess. The trickle-down theory promotes that tax breaks for the higher income sectors will benefit all. The average income earner cannot begin to fathom the reasoning behind this. Looking at history and the principles of supply and demand, some economists would say that efforts should be made to increase the supply or production of goods and services. Othe rs would argue that a slow demand for goods and services is the problem, and efforts should be made to increase demand. The 19th century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say argued that economic growth will grow naturally if you boost production. This has become known as Say’s Law. ... Therefore, there has to be a demand that is not being satisfied. What they desire is either too expensive or not being made. Making products that are in great demand will, in turn, drive down the cost and create profits for the producer or seller. This process satisfies the need or demand and turns the wheels of the economy. In the 19th century this theory was a viable way to access the situation. Thomas Jefferson even stood by the theory. When the Great Depression began in the 1930s, some economists’ views began to change. The British economist, John Keynes, argued â€Å"that there are such things as overproduction and lack of demand, and the key is to increase demand rather than supply.†4 It was his understanding that consumer demand should be promoted instead of production, and this would create jobs and production through higher consumption. Keynes introduced many theories in order to stabilize the economy on a short-term or immediate basis. He introduced policies t o adjust interest rates, which adjusted available money. He also introduced policies that encouraged government spending and taxes, which would boost demand. A major part of these adjustments were to increase taxes on the rich and reduce taxes on the poor. It was his contention that the rich would invest their money producing more products and the lower income people would more than likely spend. Therefore, the oversupply of goods would be taken care of on its own, which was the source of the problem. Keynes’ philosophy of economics continued for at least three decades. By 1970 Say’s Law began to emerge again as a viable theory. Once again, trickle-down ideas were gathering support of some economists. If we think of trickle-down economics as a catalyst to boost production, it uses Say’s

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Gender Roles and Descent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Gender Roles and Descent - Essay Example On the other hand, according to Stone (1997), there is a considerable difference between the sexual and reproductive roles of men and women in relation to time and location. Furthermore, Stone (1997) believes that the role of gender is culturally and socially constructed; therefore, the roles of men and women must be studied in a manner of understanding the sexuality and reproductive capacity of women. In the case study, Neur and Brahman societies, likewise, conceived the role of men as the head of the society. This patriarchal designation stems from their religious and cultural beliefs that men develop stability within the community (Stone, 1997). Hinduism teaches a significant gender and reproductive decision especially among women by encouraging a female child to be married before her first menstruation. Obviously, Indian females do not have the luxury to choose their own partners because it is assumed that parents are the ones responsible and more knowledgeable in choosing their daughters’ partner. This belief is actually a shared pattern among primates that highly emphasize on alliance and descent principles when it comes to marriage. These relational principles merely suggest that choosing a husband, as part of the many facets and aspects of gender roles, is actually not a freedom entitled to women in some communities because marriage is seen, not just a union of two souls, but an alliance formed between two families, as well. In other words, marriage between two families is coexistent with a male and a female union. ... ing a husband, as part of the many facets and aspects of gender roles, is actually not a freedom entitled to women in some communities because marriage is seen, not just a union of two souls, but an alliance formed between two families, as well. In other words, marriage between two families is coexistent with a male and a female union. The pros and cons in this kind of setup, which dominantly do not entitle women of free will, are obvious. From the perspective of a non-Nuer and non-Brahman member, arranged marriages only shatter the freedom of women to have control over their bodies. Kinship is more advantageous to the part of the male species because they are the ones not suffering from birth labors and risks in pregnancies. However, chapter 3 case study provides us a glimpse that Nuer women have full control over their sexuality, while Brahman women stick to their fidelity to their husbands because of the restrictions stipulated in the caste system. In the case of Nuer women, we se e that female oppression somehow happens only in terms of choosing the right man for themselves, but they have autonomy during the kinship part. Nuer women are even entitled to divorce their husbands if they see fit. On the part of the Brahman women, male domination does not count as the oppressing factor. It is the caste system that encourages wife's fidelity to her husband. Therefore, Brahman women are still empowered in this kind of setup because by being loyal to their husbands, they are rewarded through producing Brahman children. Still, the dominant perspective towards societies that encourages arranged marriages, is more on the harm this brings to the future of families. Women are said to be forced into a commitment where there is no emotional bond between them, which, on a personal

Reflection summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reflection summary - Essay Example The war against Spain in 1898 started to help the Cuban people gain their independence from the Spanish. It was a war that started with the pretense to help the Cubans but later turned into an opportunity to annex more territories. The Cubans started their liberation struggle in 1895 when they waged a rebellion against their masters. The media played a crucial role in reporting all events prompting the American government to join in the war in 1898. The U.S. Navy blocking of the Spanish fleet in Santiago Harbor signaled the beginning of the war. With troops numbering over 17,000, Spain was quickly defeated. Spain was forced to relinquish other colonies such as the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The impact of the war was that the US was now seen as a significant imperial power in the world. The US would then annex other areas in the Pacific mainly the Philippines, Samoa, Hawaii, Guam and Wake Islands. The war led to the US acquiring new territories especially the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The chapter talks about the growth of American imperialism and how it created more rivalries with other countries mainly from East

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Predictability of Foreign Exchange Rates Dissertation

Predictability of Foreign Exchange Rates - Dissertation Example I am also much obliged to my supervisors who guided me with their timely advice, feedbacks and suggestions which aided me in attaining the expected standard of work and keeping me punctual as per the scheduled deliveries of dissertation chapters. Table of Contents Serial no. Topic Page no. I Introduction, Aims & objectives and Research Questions 6 I.1 Introduction 6 I.2 Aims 6 I.3 Objectives 6 I.4 Research Questions 7 II Literature Review 8 III Research Methodology 15 IV Findings Analysis and Discussion 19 V Conclusion and Recommendations for future Research 33 VI References 40 List of Tables Table no. Topic Page no. 1a Regression Results of Equation (1a) 22 1b Regression Results of Equation (1b) 23 2a Regression Results of Equation (2a) 25 2b Regression Results of Equation (2b) 26 3a Regression Results of Equation (3a) 28 3b Regression Results of Equation (3b) 29 List of Tables in Appendix Serial no. Topic Page no. ... on: The collapse of the Bretton Woods System of fixed exchange rate in 1978 ushered in the new era of flexible exchange rate that aimed for the betterment of trade relations between countries. Free and floating exchange rate were assumed to be the solution to the barriers to free trade and hence, the newly acquired ideals of globalization. What remained uncalculated was the instability and lack of predictability associated with flexible exchange rates. In the aftermath of the Global Crisis of 2007, the predictability of exchange rates has evolved as one of the most relevant issues and pleads minute scrutiny and analysis. I.2 Aims: The objective of this research is to examine the depreciations, appreciations and devaluations in the value of the US Dollar relative to other major currencies and based on this analysis; draw a general conclusion on the degree of predictability of exchange rates in recent times. Furthermore, it attempts to identify the main factors responsible for the vola tility of exchange rates following the collapse of the Bretton Woods System and thus, offer a clear insight into the various mechanisms existent in the context of exchange rate predictability. I.3 Objectives: The main objectives of the research are: To compare the differences in the stability and predictability of exchange rates before and after the collapse of the Bretton Woods System of fixed Exchange rates. To study the variations in the value of exchange rate of US, with respect to other major currencies and based on this, gauge the relative increase or decrease in the stability and predictability of exchange rates. To identify the reasons for the changing degree of predictability in exchange rates. To study the implications of the varying degrees of predictability of exchange rates, in

Friday, July 26, 2019

National Identity of The Battle of Sainte-Foy by Joseph Lgar Research Paper

National Identity of The Battle of Sainte-Foy by Joseph Lgar - Research Paper Example This paper analyses the themes of national identity and representation in Legare’s painting. The Battle of Sainte-Foy depicts the war between Britain and France on April 1760 at the western part of Quebec City. The war is lengthy and difficult. According to Buckner (2005), the English had more or less 3,000 soldiers while France had approximately 5,900. Canadians have fought hard for centuries to gain a sense of national identity. Even though the country’s size is vast, its population is the opposite, and the entire of Canada is remarkably diverse in terms of culture that it can be thorny for its people to unite together. Nevertheless, even though significant, this does not belong to the major concerns of the Canadian pursuit for a national identity, since the nation’s actual dilemmas rest in its history (Chodos, Murphy & Hamovitch, 1991). Only as the years passed did the entire meaning of the events in the Battle of Saint-Foy become apparent and only, as well, w ith their regress, did the Canadians find power to express and depict it. English Canadians, whose identities have emerged long after the battle, as often as not deal with this event in their history with calm indifference, as shown by Legare: they can sense the victory of Britain and Wolfe and relate their identities with it, yet it is, after two centuries, an unruffled victory, without great jubilation in it, without great sentiment raised to strengthen it. Two important battles have downplayed these 18th-century events nearly to the height of insignificant fights. However, for Legare, the case is somewhat the other. The 18th century, particularly the 1760, was the period where in the French banner fell, never to rise again. Prior to 1760 were periods of remarkable successes when they were the powerful in their own lands, people of the supreme ruler in Christendom (Romney, 1999). Subsequent to it, the periods of misfortune have been ended. In that case, it is not surprising that T homas Chapais introduces his historical work with opposing images (Lower, 1958, 81): The 8th of September, 1760, at eight o’clock in the morning, the Marquis de Vaudreuil, last governor of New France, signed at Montreal the capitulation which put an end to French rule in our country. The prolongation of the heroic struggle†¦ had become impossible. The English general, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, surrounded the city†¦ with twenty thousand men, to meet whom there were hardly twenty four hundred soldiers. Food, artillery, munitions, everything was lacking. No more help could be expected from France†¦ the fatal hour had sounded and it was necessary to bow before the inevitable†¦ In the distance between them, for Legare, Chapais, and for all French Canadians, a wonder had taken place: the wonder of national identity. The painting of Legare actually make no broad depictions of the Battle of Sainte-Foy, but there emanates from the painting a breath, as it were, of catas trophe and nationalism: the people of Canada were an unfortunate people, entrusted completely in the hands of colonizers. His painting, in its entirety, is a commemoration of nationalism and in spite of its numerous errors and at times its excesses it has been recognized by the well-educated people of French Canada as the standard exhibition of the Battle of Sainte-Foy (Bumsted, 1979). In another remarkable effort to portray the emerging but weak sense of national

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Past, Present, and Future Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Past, Present, and Future Paper - Essay Example It was a confusing situation at times. I knew that education and learning was important, but at the same time I really didn’t see how it related to real life. When I enrolled at the University of Phoenix, I felt that I had good basic communication skills. I was able to read and write well. I could comprehend complex texts and I could convey information that I learned clearly to others. I did know that I writing I struggled with spelling and grammar. This problem has plagued me for my whole life. In some ways I have always felt as though it wasn’t a big deal. I could always figure something out if I really needed to. I also felt that I was dependable and could work well with people on a team. In a way, I guess I entered the program feeling as though I had some weaknesses academically, but that they could be overcome. I was able to function fully in my job in the Human Resources department and felt competent in my professional life. Entering the program, my career goals w ere to obtain a more senior position within my current employment. I wanted to work my way up and be a specialist within the Human Resources department. I realized that I needed a proper degree to do this. I also began to watch how the senior members of my department communicated and worked with one another. I realized that there were some skills that I was lacking in addition to a degree. I could see that when I compared my current ability to communicate to their ability to communicate, I was found lacking. I resolved that I would gain the skills necessary to feel comfortable and confident when working with these senior members of the Human Resources department. I felt that if I could feel comfortable working with them, then I would be in a position to one-day hold a senior position as a Human Resources Specialist myself. When I began working on the Bachelors of Science in Management (BSM) degree at the University of Phoenix, it became clear that I was not nearly as prepared taking these classes as I thought. I discovered that my spelling and grammar that I knew was a weakness turned out to be much weaker than I thought. I found that just muddling through was not good enough any more so I grew determined to really improve my weaknesses so they could actually become strengths. I found the high level of expectations that was set for clear writing and concise communication to be challenging but helpful in my goal to improve. The feedback I received from professors and other students was very helpful. Collaborating with other students was a part of the course study that I really enjoyed and was actually where I learned the most about writing. I have always enjoyed working in a team atmosphere and felt that I could do it well. What I found at the University of Phoenix was that I actually got better at using collaboration as a tool for learning. I began to see how I could use the feedback from my peers to really improve a paper or to develop a new perspective on a problem that needed to be solved. Through this collaborative process, I feel that my abilities in information retrieval, communication, writing and oral communication skills have greatly improved. I feel that there are three specific classes that really helped me to improve in these areas. The first of these classes was my Skills For Professional Development class. I call this my wake-up call class, because it was in this class that I

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Research and analyze an organization's 3BL and Stakeholders Paper

And analyze an organization's 3BL and Stakeholders - Research Paper Example Triple Bottom Line Analysis Profit In late 2012, 3M announced that, consistent with its marketplace presence and relevance building strategy, they would start aligning management and resources towards 5 groups of business including energy and electronics, safety and graphics, healthcare, industrial, and consumer. The conglomerate’s operation results have been managed based on the segment structure in existence throughout the year 2012. 3M results will be managed under this alignment on its coming into full effect by mid-2013. The conglomerate’s net income for 2012’s fourth quarter was $991 million compared to 2011’s fourth quarter net income of $954 million (Gibson 83). 4th quarter sales for 2012 increased by 4.2% to 47.4 billion from 2011, while there was a 4.3% growth in organic sales in local currency (Gibson 83). In this growth of organic local currency sales, the office and consumer segment led with an 8.7% growth; with increase in growth for office a nd stationery supplies, home improvement construction markets, and consumer healthcare. Graphics and display grew by 8.3% in organic local currency sales; with an increase in sales for commercial graphics, traffic safety systems, architectural markets, and optical systems (Gibson 84). In healthcare, the same grew by 5.9%, particularly in oral care, wound care, health information systems, and food safety. While transportation grew by 3.9% and communication and electronics grew by 1.8%, protection, security, and safety declined by 1.7%. For the entire 2012, 3M’s income stood at $4.444 billion in comparison to $4.283 in 2011, which was an increase of 6%. Sales also increased by 1% to 29.9% in 2012 as organic currency sales also increased by 2.6% aided by a 0.8% increase to sales, although currency effects saw a 2.4% reduction year-on-year (Gibson 85). From these results, it is clear that 3M is a highly profitable company that has seen growth in a period directly following the gl obal recession. Planet The first set of environmental goals released by 3M was in 1990 and since this period, they have managed to cut emission of Greenhouse gases worldwide by over 72%, a reduction by 96% of volatile organic compound emissions, and an 82% decrease in the use of energy (Bogdan 76). In line with this, the company has set new goals that they expect to reach by 2014. These goals include a reduction of 15% in volatile air emissions indexed to net sales from base year 2010, a 10% reduction in waste production indexed to net sales from base year 2010, and an increase in energy efficiency of 25% indexed to net sales from base year 2005 (Bogdan 76). In addition, 3M expects to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 5% indexed to net sales from base year 2006 by 2013 and the development of plans to conserve water where the company is located in water stressed areas with water scarcity. Since the inception of their new goals in 2005/2006, 3M has seen an 8.6% decrease in volat ile organic compounds, a well as a 9.2% waste reduction. They have also seen a 32% increase in energy efficiency, a 55% reduction in greenhouse gases, and a 100% development of their plans to conserve

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Prepare a report on PEST analysis for Apple. look at how various micro Assignment

Prepare a report on PEST analysis for Apple. look at how various micro and macro factors are affecting your chosen company - Assignment Example globalisation, which involves the integration of economies into the international economy through capital flows, foreign direct investment, and trade. This, in turn, results in the spread of cultures and technology and improvement in lifestyle and affluence. Apple is able to make use of the cheap labour and growing markets in the newly developing nations like India, which were once considered poor. In the opinion of Schifferes (2007), Apple has become a virtual firm by shifting its production units to countries like China in Asia through outsourcing. In an effort to reduce its operating costs, the company has spread its product manufacturing to states like Korea, Ireland, China, and Czech Republic. In addition, there are suppliers from Canada, Germany, France, Taiwan, Japan, Mexico, and Brazil (Apple Inc. 2014). In addition, there is a thirty-fold increase in the world trade since 1950s as a result of this globalisation (WTO, 2007). According to reports, Apple depends on countries other than America for about 58% of its total sales (Kane & Rohwedder 2010). Thus, globalisation has a positive effect on the company’s performance. Apple benefits from the modern life style because the company has managed to present itself as a lifestyle brand (Saviolo & Marazza 2012). As Roumeliotis (2014) identifies, a lifestyle brand touches a number of emotional factors, ranging from social status, self-esteem and desires. By creating such an image, Apple is now able to reap profit from the increasing number of tech-savvy youth who consider the possession of an Apple iPod and headphone as an important element of modern lifestyle. As Apple has a significant role in online music market and cyberspace, the modern lifestyle is well-suited for the company’s growth. (Apple’s branding strategy 2012). Technological factors are the biggest challenge for the company. Firstly, though the company leads the hardware sector by introducing new ideas every time, like mouse, 3.5 inch

Monday, July 22, 2019

Evaluation of Supply chain performance Essay Example for Free

Evaluation of Supply chain performance Essay The contents of the paper comprise the case study of ACTAVIS BULGARIA EAD Sofia’s supply chain performance evaluation. It is elaborated in the paper that supply chain performance evaluation is not a simple concept; instead, it pertains to various drives, environmental factors, needs, technologies, and other forces. Managers must keep on evaluating the supplier’s performance in order to provide the company with competitive advantage. The evaluation and improvement of supply chain is somewhat oversimplified.   How the results of the evaluation will enhance the productivity of company is also discussed. Outline of Paper: The paper focuses on the supply chain management of the Actavis Bulgaria company and covers the following main points: The importance of measuring the performance of the organisations supplies chain (upstream and downstream). Key performance indicators to assess the company’s suppliers have been used. Critical examination of the possibilities for improvements of the downstream supply chain has been undertaken. Importance of Supply Chain performance evaluation: With the increasing globalization the competition between the firms is also increasing.  Ã‚   The Speed of delivery is becoming a key indicator of supply chain success. The dynamic nature of current and future operations requires constant analysis of medical materieldown to the individual item leveltransiting this pipeline. The goal of a supply chain should be to maximize overall supply chain profitability. Supply chain profitability is the difference between the revenue generated from the customer and the total cost incurred across all the stages of the supply chain. Supply chain decisions have a large impact on the success or failure of each firm because they significantly influence both the revenue generated as well as the cost incurred. Successful supply chains manage flows of product, information and funds to provide a high level of product availability to the customer while keeping costs low. Measuring the performance of the supply chain is critical to identifying troubled segments, determining success, and assessing operational capabilities. Measuring performance requires a metric that measures the time from demand creation to demand fulfillment at the customer level. Average customer wait time: a supply chain performance indicator Army Logistician, Nov-Dec, 2004 by David R. Gibson From the managerial focus, the performance measurement can be defined as the information regarding the processes and products results, that allows the evaluation and the comparison in relation to goals, patterns, past results and with other processes and products. Also, it is important to highlight that a managerial performance evaluation system needs to be focused on results, which should be guided by the stakeholder’s interests. Beamon Ware (1998) affirm that the adoption of performance indicators should deal with the following questions: Which aspects should be measured? How to measure these aspects? How to use the measures to analyze, improve and control the productive chain quality? It is noticed that this is not an easy task, once there are several indicators available and it is necessary to align the used measures with the involved companies goals. In this direction, Maskell (1991) emphasizes the establishment of a relationship between the performance measures and the company strategic objectives. According to Beamon (1998), previous researches indicate that the exclusive use of costs as a performance indicator is common among the companies. This happens because the performance measurement through a single indicator is relatively simple. It should be attempted, even so, to the fact that this practice can provide very superficial information about the reality. Beamon (1996) also affirms that the chosen indicators should present simultaneously, inclusiveness (to include the measure of all the pertinent aspects), universality (to allow the comparison under several operational conditions), measurability (to guarantee that the necessary data are measurable) and consistency (to guarantee consistent measures with the objectives of the organization). On the other hand, it is not recommended to simply discard costs as a performance indicator due to its importance. The alternative would be the adoption of multiple indicators, involving a cost combination with time, flexibility and quality, according to the company competitive priorities. Traditionally, the performance evaluation is limited to an isolated company or productive process. For an effective SCM it is necessary to expand these concepts beyond the company limits, involving all the supply chain players. It is necessary then, the development of a performance evaluation system embracing all the business units. This can be achieved through the adaptation of the traditional performance evaluation systems. Currently Actavis operates in the country split into two divisions Operations and Sales Marketing. Actavis Bulgaria Operations is a holding company responsible for the management of the three factories providing first class generic products, mainly for the Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian and CIS markets. The Sales Marketing division is represented in the country by Actavis EAD, a company registered under the Bulgarian law. It employs about 200 people and operates three warehouses in the country. Actavis EAD is mainly focused on marketing the Groups products as first class generics on the Bulgarian market, which is the third biggest market for the companys own brand revenues world wide. Following its strategy for a vertical integration on the Bulgarian market Actavis recently acquired one of the biggest local distribution companies, Higia. It is expected that the combination of Actavis strong portfolio and Higias strategically important foothold in the distribution of pharmaceuticals will provide a more direct route to the customers and also provide a stronger platform for future growth. Commercial entities licensed by the Ministry of Health for wholesale trading with pharmaceuticals. Due to the corporate structure of Actavis AD (Bulgaria), the wholesale companies are the end-users of the company, since Actavis AD (Bulgaria) does not distribute its products directly to pharmacies and hospitals but through its distributing companies (wholesalers) to which â€Å"to the market† sales are made. The value added by the distributing companies to the overall commercial activities of Actavis AD (Bulgaria) is defined both by the key position of our major partners in the whole pharmacy supply chain and by the ever improving logistics and warehouse capacities of the leading national distributing companies. The distributing companies are the company’s clients and at Actavis the customers are treated as a key to the company’s success†. The wholesalers’ role for the overall business of Actavis AD (Bulgaria) is extremely important also due to the fact that the key distributing companies (e.g. Commercial League, Sanita Trading, Kaliman) have developed vertical integration within the distribution channel, that is they own pharmacy chains. (Actavis, 2004) The generic pharmaceuticals industry is rapidly consolidating on a global basis with the key factors for future success being scale, geographic reach, product pipeline depth and access to low-cost manufacturing. The combination of Actavis and PLIVA achieves all of these crucial requirements and would create the third largest generic pharmaceuticals company globally, with the geographic scope and size necessary to compete with the largest industry players. Furthermore: * The two companies are a perfect fit which will enable a rapid integration process and create a business with a leading position in the key US, European and Asian markets and a robust portfolio covering the entire spectrum of generic and biogeneric pharmaceutical products. * PLIVA will become an integral part of the combined Groups growth strategy and benefit from increased investment and a strengthened infrastructure. Actavis plans to increase the number of employees in Croatia to generate stronger growth and greater success. Actavis intends to increase production and R;D activities in Croatia, which will ultimately lead to more jobs in the region. * The enlarged business will benefit from low cost manufacturing facilities, efficient distribution and enhanced supply chain capabilities. Actavis has a strong track record of being able to drive down manufacturing costs across the Group without impacting the employee base. * PLIVA will become the headquarters for a substantial part of the enlarged business, and at the same time benefit from Actavis global footprint and infrastructure. * Actavis will seek a stock listing in Zagreb to encourage ongoing support from the investment community in Croatia. * Actavis puts great value on PLIVAs Croatian roots and is committed to revitalizing the PLIVA brand and expanding its recognition in key markets. * Actavis has a high opinion of PLIVAs management team and envisages them playing a central role in the new company and sharing decisions regarding future strategy. 20. 04. 2006Actavis announces improved preliminary proposal to Pliva Performance measurement of Actavis Suppliers: Supplier performance must be rated on each of these factors because they impact the total supply chain cost. Next we discuss how each factor affects total supply chain cost and how a supplier’s rating on the factor can be used to infer a total cost of using the supplier. 1.replenishment lead time: As the replenishment lead time from a supplier grows the amount of safety inventory that needs to be held by the buyer also grows proportional to the square root of the replenishment lead time. Lead-time performances by a supplier can directly the translated into the required safety inventory using equation 11.9. Scoring the performance of suppliers in terms of replenishment lead-time thus allows the firm to evaluate the impact each supplier has on the cost of holding safety inventory. 2. On-time performance: On-time performance affects the variability of the lead-time. A reliable supplier has low variability of lead-time whereas an unreliable supplier has high variability. As the variability of lead-time grows, the required safety inventory at the firm grows very rapidly. 3. Supply flexibility: Supply flexibility is the amount of variation in order quantity that a supplier can tolerate without letting other performance factors deteriorate. The less flexible a supplier is, the more lead time variability he will display as order quantities change. Supply flexibility thus impacts the level of safety inventory that the firm will have to carry. 4. Delivery frequency/minimum lot size: The delivery frequency and the minimum lot size offered by a supplier affect the size of each replenishment lot ordered y a firm. As the replenishment lot size grows, the cycle inventory at the firm grows, thus increasing the cost of holding inventory. For a firm using a periodic review policy, delivery frequency also impacts the required safety inventory. Thus, delivery frequency of a supplier can be converted into the cost of holding cycle as safety inventory. 5. Supply quality: A worsening of supply quality increases the variability of the supply of components available to a firm. Quality affects the lead-time taken by the supplier to complete the replenishment order and also the variability of this lead-time because follow-up orders often need to be fulfilled to replace defective products. As a result, the firm will have to carry more safety inventory from a low-quality supplier compared to a high-quality supplier. Once a relationship between supply quality lead-time and lead-time variability is established, each supplier’s quality level can be converted to the required safety inventory and the associated holding cost. The component quality also impacts customer satisfaction and product cost because of rework, lost material, and the cost of inspection. 6. Inbound transportation cost: The total cost of using a supplier includes the inbound transportation cost of bringing material in from the supplier. Sourcing a product overseas may have lower product cost but will generally incur a higher inbound transportation cost, which must be accounted for when comparing suppliers. The distance, mode of transportation, and the delivery frequency affect the inbound transportation cost associated with each supplier. 7. Pricing terms: Pricing terms include the allowable time delay before payments have to be made and any quantity discounts offered by the supplier. Allowable time delays in payment to suppliers save the buyer working capital. The cost of working capital savings for each supplier can be quantified. Price terms also include discounts for purchases above certain quantities. Quantity discounts lower the unit cost but tend to increase the required batch size and as result the cycle inventory.

Global Systems Development Corporation Essay Example for Free

Global Systems Development Corporation Essay GSDC is a software development firm with sales, marketing, and project offices in major cities of North America. We provide a global project management services, on-site personnel as needed for design, and testing and liaison with teams of developers in India and Eastern Europe. GSDC is known to have extensive experience in website development and have completed several successful websites implementation for institutions of higher education. Background and analysis STI has been working with GSDC to implement the new website, and GSDC views STI as a premier customer. As the project has unfolded, however, cost overruns and delays have occurred. STI claims that GSDC underbid the project and was too optimistic in its bid and project plan. Time has been lost and the project has cost overruns to date of $200,000. Given todays  date and the need to have the site in place, STI management has clearly articulated that the new website must be up and running within 60 days of the beginning of these negotiations. Proposed goals, objectives, target population and implementation plan Considering the state of the project we are about 75% complete and we can finish the project under tight constraints. GSDC is the most knowledgeable and with only 25% left of the project left to complete we believe that the completion of the project by GSDC would benefit both parties. Both sides can take a â€Å"lessons† learned. Considering the work completed there is not much left of the project to scope and our confident that we can finish out the final pieces and components of the website. The value in continuing the relationships shows that both companies have a level of professionalism and a can do attitude that is admirable in the business world. The most important consideration for GSDC is that we meet our clients’ needs and that the customer is satisfied with the finished product. The must complete the website for the negation to be considered successful. Annual project budget Organization HISTORY, MISSION, Vision and Structures STI Institute is located in the Midwest offering wide ranges of programs in arts and sciences, business, and education programs. The school includes a variety of Master’s Degree programs, and continuing education for the community. The institute Attracts over 6,000 students annually, 5,000 undergraduates, 1,000 graduate students, as well as part-time students in the Midwestern region including local and state. We have been working with GSDC to implement the new website, and we both agree that the project costs are over budget. There has been too much time delay, and we need to come to an agreement to finish within 60 days of beginning negotiations. Proposed goals, objectives, target population and implementation plan Project is almost at completion but with the communications between both parties not being clear on requirements. After reviewing the complaints from GSDC the overall solution will agree upon STI select few to work closely with GSDC personnel to exchange ideas and come to a resolution. We will clarify requirements, support the on-site and remote development teams, and perform timely testing. In order to be 100 % complete within the 60 day period. The value in continuing the relationships shows that both companies have a level of professionalism and a can do attitude that is admirable in the  business world. Once everything is agreed upon we suggest we have are selected personnel to video conference with GSDC on an agreed time to make sure the progress is underway. Therefore if there’s any changes to be made it in constant overview and finished in time.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Globalisation Today Throughout The Modern World English Language Essay

Globalisation Today Throughout The Modern World English Language Essay Globalisation means the extending the relationship and broadening interdependence amongst different people from different parts of the world (Daniels, 2007: 6). In todays world the process of globalization has developed to such an extent, that it is argued that there are few companies that operate solely in their domestic market (Kotabe and Helsen, 2008:20). To support the above statement According to Whettingsteel (1999:19) has estimated that 70% of UK companies have business partners outside the domestic market. Apart from that do not actively sell abroad, still face foreign competitors in their own domestic markets. Whereas many domestic oriented companies get there raw materials, components, or labour from abroad (Worthington and Britton, 2006: 368). Further on In business operation management, Manager has to manage conflicts within the organisation but these conflicts are heightened in the management of international operations due to the different national culture of work force. Manager as well as marketer requires the understanding of the consequences or effects of cultural differences of language, religion, value, system, customs, and education in the cross cultural organisation while working or marketing a product. And cultural factors are least tangible but in some ways the most important of the factor which should be taken into account while doing international business (Forrester). According to Czinkota (1996: 298) defines Culture, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ it is an integrated system of learned behaviour pattern that are characteristic of the member of any given society. Whereas it include certain elements such as language, religion, value, attitude, manner and customs, aesthetics, education and social institutions. According to Lee and Carter (2005: 424) agrees and says that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ trust, commitment and communication are a required pre-requisites for the development and maintenance of good rela tionship. Where communication is majorly an indicative of spoken language which is established factors in cross cultural business interaction where language is considered as important key element or factor because other factors such as trust, commitment, cultural affinity, experience etc are accessed through the use of language. According to Swift à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦culture is the door to a market and language is the key to that door. The above statement is supported by Holden (1989: 9-10), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..Whereas marketers have accepted that language is a facet of culture, they come to find it more productive to see culture as a facet of language. Whereas according to Worlds foremost linguists and literacy scholar George Steiner (1975), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.the application of the concept of exact science to the study of language is an idealized simile (Holden, 2002: 230). And language provides a bonding to whole process of relationship development of business (Swift, 2000). Due to which it can be said that Foreign language competence is a major component of successful cross-cultural relationship development through which companies are looking for development of international relationship (Swift, 2008: 3). High level foreign language competences can advantage an likely to build up in terms of acquiring a better understanding of foreign business culture which may confer some benefit in selling and negotiation (Clarke, 1997:80). Whereas international business literature on one hand and linguistic literature on the other appears to say very little on the importance of particular language in relation to the international activities of firms and the economic, political, and technological power associated with individual languages (Nigel 1989: 1). Language also has a vital role in process for communicaton. The process of Communication: Model of communication process comes in many forms such as verbal, non-verbal and mathematical. On the other hand regardless of other models forms it share three basic element such as sender, message and receiver (Delozier, 1976: 2). Where sources (Sender) is a person or group of people having a thought to share with some other person or group. For e.g. group of people who are viewed as singular sender or receivers are the United States governments, the internal revenue service. After that Encoding, this is process of putting through into symbolic form which is controlled by sender for e.g. printed or spoken words such as in marketing, a magazine advertisement and television commercials. The next element is channel; it is a way in which messages moves from sender to receiver such as media, Television etc. According to Lasswell (1971: 84), is also known as media analysis. After Channel, Decoding is a next element which is Vice versa of encoding where receiver has to send the transform ing message symbol back into thought. And at last the receiver where person or group with whom the sender share his thoughts for e.g. In marketing, the receives are known as the prospective and present consumers of the firms product (Delozier, 1976: 3). Sources: model of communication process But in the above process of communication the key element of effective communication is encoding and decoding which is very important to understand (Swift, 2008). Because sometimes if the message is not decoded or translate properly to a receiver or if receiver unable to understand the language of the sender then It is not of any use. For e.g. Rural areas in India where any company advertising their produce in English language and most of the rural population is not able to decode it properly then there is a no use of such advertising. Company would directly incur a loss. According to Miller (1963: 7) says that, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..if the people communicating are unfamiliar with the code or if they are unable to distinguish amongst the symbols, errors become likely. Sometimes within the same language the same thing can occur such as technical and professional jargon, where language is understood by people working in the industry but appearing meaningless to an outsider, even if the outsider is speaking the same language. So it is clear that encoding and decoding process must work within same culture context or frame work (Swift, 2008). So In the process of communication language plays a vital role in market which includes Verbal communication as well as Non Verbal communication. Where verbal language is divided into written or spoken language in four main areas such as: Syntax (rules of sentence formation), semantics (System of meaning), phonology (systems of sound patterns) and word morphology (word formation) (Keegan and Green, 2005: 126). And Non Verbal communication is an oldest method of communication where no oral or written language and body language was the sole means of communication (Bolton, 1979:78). It includes Kinesics (gestures, touching, liking, conviction, emotions etc) and Proxemics (personal space and territory) (Swift, 2008: 45). It is communication process plays a vital role in marketing such as while informing, pe rsuading and negotiation. According to Clarke and Wilson (2009), says that language is considered as an important tool for marketer on the bases of three different factors which are explained in detail as follow: Informing: For a Marketer it is important to keep in mind while informing about the product in particular country should use a local language or translate. There is an good example based on informing and selling of product said by Germany, s ex- chancellor, Willy Brandt: When I come to sell to you in England, then I will speak in English but when you come to sell to me in Germany then you must speak German (Weber, 1989: 159). An example of information provided on the bases of language such as marketing done in India where information are provided in form of verbal language and non verbal language of communication such as a TATA product i.e. Tata sky DTH and Airtel product i.e. dish TV. In their following advertisement such as In Tata sky DTH advertisement are based on the informing about the product in technical ways by using the brand ambassador of Bollywood actor Aamir Khan who is known as a perfectionist in the entire bollywood industry. His advertisement is based on verbal communication wer e the words spoken from an actor indicating directly about the product. The punch line is Isko laga dala toh life Jhinga la la where as Airtel product i.e. Dish TV advertisement are based on emotional factors while informing the people about the product by using emotional guesters such as old couple love story. Their brand ambassador Shahrukh Khan who is known as the King of Emotional Drama in entire industry of enterainment. Where in his advertisement the emotional factor, body language, guesters etc were use to indicate about the product to people. And the punch line of Dish TV is ghar aayi zindagi which means it bought new life to your house it indicates emotions. So as he know India has an High context Culture factor where the emotional part such as gestures compare to Low context culture for countries such as America where clear communication modes (Kotabe and Helsen, 2007: 127).But sometimes while informing about the product the marketer need to keep in mind about the use of p roper language such as In United Kingdom the snickers bars were sold under the brand name of Marathon because they felt the name was too close to the English idiom for female Lingerie (Knickers) (Kotabe and Helsen, 2007:115). Whereas in Middle East countries, are male dominated countries where if any gestures used while informing about the product should be respectful because mixing men and women in focus group is prohibited in Saudi Arabia and if the advertisement are related to women they should be shown with total respect on television cameras . Where in China, marketer should keep in mind while informing about product to the people such Book which pronounced as Shu which sounds as I hope you loose and the word Clock pronounced as Zhong which sounds as death. Persuasion: According to Austin, Persuasion is the communication act that carries out both these goals such as an audience that has been persuaded has understood an expression or utterance and other one believes its message (Tailard, 2000:145). Persuading someone is like performing an act (roughly that of affecting someones belief or desires) using some form of communication usually language (Tailard, 2000: 146). And the word To persuade is typically given as one of the first example of Perlocutionary by speech act theorists for e.g. Locutionary act: which means saying something such as young woman holds up a bottle of Coca-Cola and shouts Coke is the real thing in front of Television camera. Illocutionary act: are performed in saying something such as a young woman is shouting Coke is a real thing where she asserted that a product called Coke is the real thing. Perlocutionary act: are performed by saying something such as a young woman shouting Coke is the real thing where she is persuaded millions of television viewers around the world that drinking coke is a worldwide experience (Austin, 1962:102). According to (ibid: 101) says that At the end the effect of Perlocutionary acts as major effect upon the feeling, thoughts, or act of the audience or of the people or of the speaker which is an comes under non-verbal communication. Where there should be proper use of language consider the market of particular country while advertising about the product. Negotiation: A process through which parties move from their initially divergent positions to a point where agreement may be reached (Steele and Beasor, 2007:3). Whereas According to Cellich (2004: 25), the concept of negotiation is interpreted differently from one culture to another for e.g. In U.S. negotiation is a mechanical exercise of offers and counter offers that leads to a deal which is cut and dry method of arriving at an agreement whereas in Japan, negotiation is sharing information and developing a relationship that may lead to deal. Sometimes negotiation style used so effectively that domestically it can be inappropriate while dealing with people from other cultural background. Indeed it can be more harmful than gaining (Gulbro and Herbid, 1995: 4). In some countries such as Greek sees contract as a formal statement, announcing the intention to build a business for the future and the negotiation is completed on when work is accomplished. Where as In China, approach is rather to establish a negotiating process based on human relationship and often dependent on nature and concern of creating a bonding of friendship (Drew and Herbig, 1997: 20). According to Petcher (1992: 47) says that, there are four aspects of culture are especially important in negotiating well such as spoken language, body language, attitude towards time and attitude towards contracts. There is an example based on above statement which negotiation between American and Japanese , where the same spoken word can have three different meanings and direct refusal are considered as impolite. Sometimes words used by Japanese are does not have the same thing to an American or European such as words like difficult and it will take some time means no. and not even the body language is same such as in Japanese audibly sucking air through their teeth means they are feeling pressured and where as hearty handshake convey the sincerity in New York and London which make Asian Uncomfortable (Cellieh, 2004: 12). According to Turnbull and Welham says that the ability of communicate with a buyer in his own language leads to a lowering of the psycho social barrier to interaction. Whereas a Psychological disadvantage to the buyer of having to negotiate in foreign language which can be barrier to an socialization. And native language use can reduce the feeling of isolation and encourage developing more positive attitude towards foreign negotiator (Swift, 1991:44). To support this above statement there is an example given by Swift (1991:44), where an export sales executive working in Spanish market where he experienced the psychological disadvantage. He explained I am aware that sometimes they (Spanish people or suppliers) revert to their own language just to get an idea and while negotiating in English they talk between themselves in their native language. Role of Foreign Language in market: For achieving the success in foreign market it is necessary to communicate effectively with foreign customers or business partners (Swift, 2008: 81). And also for an marketer its an importance thing to understand or to speak according to local language due to which people can understand the language of marketer For e.g. In India today also 72% of Indian population lives in rural areas (Haub and Sharma, 2006).where they are not able to understand business language but its necessary for an marketer to speak in local language or national language of India to promote or want to sell their product to customer. Its like a marketer has to Think locally and act globally. And also according to Swift (1991: 36), one should accept to speak in customers language to do well in international market. To support the statement of Swift there is an example such as British companies will still need to speak the language of consumers in the countries where they trade. (Hurn, 2009: 303). And there is one more example such as at time difficulties faced by foreigners while doing the business with Italy when they assume that italian business culture is similar to France or Germany. But there culture is greatly dependent on contract fo which knowledge of the language is so vital for an marketer (Swift, 1991:43). English is considered as international business language for communication in any part of the world (MacDonald and Cook, 1998: 216). And According to Britannica World Data Book, (1992) it is said that 69 countries designated English as an official language. whereas in many Multinational companies in Europe such as Nestle , Erickson etc have considered English as their common business language for their internal communication (Kameda, 2000: 204) and also there is an example of internal communication where it was considered strictly by company called Asea Brown Boveri Group an Swiss multinational company where they made English as an official language for high level meeting, send letters to colleagues who stays in Sweden written in English said by CEO and Chairman Mr. Barnevic ( Taylor, 1991: 92). Apart from English, Other language should also be given importance in foreign market while entering into a business with particular country because According to European Commission (2005) say s that, Language Skills will be important in achieving European policy goals, particularly against a background of increasing global competition. Due to which some companies are making their staff to learn different types of languages which is most commonly used in market. There is an e.g. (ELAN) where Top 10 languages in which firms are training in their staff from last three year. There is a diagram which indicates that how much other language is given importance (ELAN report, 2006:1-2). From the above pie Chart indicate the top 10 languages in which firms have trained there staff in last 3 years. Where English (25%) have been an major Language which id followed by Germany, French, Italian, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, Portuguese, Danish, Estonia and other Language (ELAN Report, 2006). There is an example why companies are giving importance to other language as well such an Irish Exporter where two-third (62.5%) of Irish export are sold to customers whos native language is not English and it important that ability to communicate effectively in language other English should be a concern to Irish companies (Clarke, 1997:82). Language barrier: Holder (1989: 3), suggested that lack of understanding of the social and cognitive dimensions of language can be as important as the inability to understand the formal linguistic system.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Byzantium: faith and power 1261 - 1557 :: essays research papers

Byzantium – the state which has brought in the big contribution to development of culture to Europe of middle ages. Here the Christianity for the first time became an official religion. Christianity affected the Byzantine art. In Byzantine art the main subject of paintings – icons (Greek – image) were holy figures: Christ, the Virgin Mary, the saints, and the apostles. One of the most famous is icon with Archangel Gabriel, Byzantine (Constantinople or Sinai?), 13th century. There is the exhibition devoted to the art of Byzantine civilization at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The exhibition begins in 1261, when the capital Constantinople was restored to imperial rule, and concludes in 1557. It is last period of existence of Byzantium and time of last blossoming of its culture. One of the great example of Byzantine icons is Two-Sided Icon with the Virgin Pafsolype and Feast Scenes and the Crucifixion and Prophets, Byzantine (Constantinople) second half of the 14th century. On the observe side there is the picture of the Virgin and Child surrounded by ten feast scenes. At the upper left corner we can see Archangel Gabriel tells to the Virgin that she will have a Child. The last scene is the death of the Virgin. On the reserve side we can see the Crucifixion of the Christ. Mother and apostle stand near Christ with a great sorrow on their faces. The other great icon from that epoch is icon with Saint Catherine of Alexandria and Scenes of her Passion and Martyrdom, Sinai, 13th century. The image of Saint Catherine also surrounded by twelve small scenes from her life. There are scenes of her imprisonment and torture, and we can see that angel never leaves her. The last scene is her beheading. If we look at this icon we can see that the Saint Catherine holds the cross on her hands; it means that she was murdered because of her faith in Christianity. She dressed as a royal person. The background of an icon symbolizes divine essence. For example, gold – Divine light, white – cleanliness of the Christ and light of his Divine, green -

Friday, July 19, 2019

Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment Essay -- Crime Punishment Essay

Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment      Ã‚  Ã‚   Raskolnikov's mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism.   Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based on its calculated worth.   Raskolnikov appears to employ the fundamentals of utilitarianism by pitting the negative consequences of murdering his old landlady against the positive benefits that her money would bestow onto society.   However, a true follower of utilitarianism would be outraged at Raskolnikov's claim that murdering the old woman can be considered morally right. Raskolnikov arbitrarily leaves out some necessary considerations in his moral "equation" that do not adhere to utilitarianism.   A utilitarian would argue that Raskolnikov has not reached an acceptable solution because he has not accurately solved the problem.   On the other hand, a non-utilitarian would reject even the notion of deliberating about the act of murder in such a mathematical manner.   He might contend that Raskolnikov's reasoning, and the entire theory of utilitarianism, cannot be used to judge morality because it rejects individual rights and contains no moral absolutes.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A utilitarian bases his belief upon two principles:   the theory of right actions and the theory of value.   These two principles work together and serve as criteria for whether or not a utilitarian can deem an action morally right. First, the theory of right action argues that the morally right decision is the one whose consequences are at least as good as any other availa... ...    Gibson, A Boyce. The Religion of Dostoyevsky. Philadelphia: Westmenster Press, 1973. Monas, Sidney, trans. Crime and Punishment. By Fyodor Dostoyevsky. New York: Penguin, 1968.    Morsm, Gary Saul. "How to Read. Crime and Punishment." Commentary 1992 June, 93 (6):  Ã‚   49-53.    Rosenshield, Gary "The Realization of the Collective Self: The Birth of Religious Autobiography in Dostoevski's Zapiski iz Mertvogo Doma." Slavic Review 1991 Summer 50 (2): 317-27.    Panichas, George A. "The World of Dostoyevsky." Modern Age 22: 346-57    Mann, Robert. "Elijah the Prophet in Crime and Punishment." Canadian Slavonic Papers 1981 Sept 23 (3): 261-72.    Yancey, Phillip. "Be Ye Perfect, More or Less: Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, and the impossible Sermon on the Mount." Christianity Today 17 July 1991: 38-41.

Narcissism as Liberation and Deep Play: Notes on a Balinese Cockfight E

Comparing Susan Douglas' Narcissism as Liberation and Clifford Greetz's Deep Play: Notes on a Balinese Cockfight The method used by Susan Douglas in her essay â€Å"Narcissism as Liberation† to describe the way a particular event to practice might have a deeper meaning seems to differ somewhat with that used by Clifford Greetz in â€Å"Deep Play: Notes on a Balinese Cockfight†. In the former, the author concentrates on the method which would be best described as â€Å"direct approach†. In her explanations of the themes behind different advertising practices and their implied meanings she makes it sound as though the ones responsible for the advertisements infuse these subliminal messages on purpose into the context. She describes the play on women’s feelings to cow them into thinking that they are never the ideal and should always be working to perfect their bodies (using the advertiser’s products) is an intentional subliminal message that is infused into every commercial advertisement is done because that method seems to be effective. She stresses that the media and corporations have shaped...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Recent trends in Marketing Essay

Inauguration by a Celebrity: In this, the celebrity becomes a brand  ambassador of the hospitality unit and thus it leads to creating an image of the restaurant. The inauguration leads to an indirect advertisement in the newspapers informing people that the restaurant has been inaugurated by this celebrity. For example: Food Star Restaurant in Bandra-Khar area inaugurated by Actor Salman Khan helped the restaurant in marketing its image. Sandwich Man: This concept is very popular in the United States. In this, an individual wearing a costume which has a resemblance with the restaurants image tries to attract and market the restaurant to the people who pass by. The sandwich man tries to interact and entertain the people thus persisting them to eat in the restaurant. This is a form of direct marketing done by the restaurant directly to individuals without the help of any electronic or non-living medium. For example: McDonalds uses this concept of Sandwich man Advertisement in Magazines and Newspaper: Often restaurateurs and hoteliers try to invite different food critics so that they can write good reviews in about the restaurant and hotelier. In this the restaurant or hotel is marketed using a print medium and thus gets a good amount of audience who might become a potential customer of the restaurant. For example: Magazine like Good Food and Sunday Times. Advertising via Phone: Customers are often given feedback forms after they are done with the meal. In which they feed in their mobile no’s and also other details. In this process, the restaurant will store the details of the customer in a certain database and will try market the restaurants various discounts or food items through the medium of SMS to the customer. This is basically a form of retaining the customer.For Example: Rajdhani Restaurant In-Store Media: In-store media the restaurant uses television or radio within the restaurant and tries to re-capture the interest of the customer to order more food. The in-store media informs sometimes about the menu of the restaurant and or it just keeps playing the Television advertisement of the restaurant. For example: McDonalds in certain malls of foreign countries Outdoor Advertising: In outdoor advertising, the restaurant tries to attract people by just placing an information board about certain discount or certain buffet in the restaurant. For example: Every Saturday, Krishna Chhaya Restaurant in Khar has buffet service for Lunch. Online Restaurant Info Guides: Various sites  like, and are sites where people can get all the information of the restaurant and also of the reviews of the customers who have visited that restaurant. This online restaurant guide is one of the most popular techniques in marketing of restaurant. Food Festival: In food festival, the restaurant will come up with a certain kind of theme for a certain period of days. This theme includes the restaurant staff wearing clothes according to the theme and also the food being prepared based on that theme. For example: Barbeque Nation came up with African Food Festival in May 2012 Restaurant/ Hotel Website: Now-a-days, all kind of restaurant and hotels have come with their own websites. These websites include the various products, services, locations etc. The customers can even order food through these websites which ge ts home delivered. This is a popular technique used in advertising wherein the restaurant by itself advertises providing its information. For example:, Telephone and E-mail Marketing: Restaurateurs create a database of all their past customers and also the potential customers and they keep on trying to attract them back to the restaurant through phone communication or e-mailing them. They call or email them and inform them of the various new products or discounts available. For example: e-mails of discounts on large pizza orders from dominos. Guerrilla Marketing: Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy that focuses on low-cost unconventional marketing tactics that yield maximum results. The original term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book ‘Guerrilla Advertising’. This alternative advertising style relies heavily on unconventional marketing strategy, high energy and imagination. Guerrilla Marketing is about making customers surprise and create a buzz among them. Take- away Menu: Often when food is home-delivered, the parcel also includes the take-away menu. This take-away menu is a kind of marketin g done by the restaurant to advertise itself with recent changes in done to the menu. For example: The pizza box of dominoes also has a take-away menu stuck on it. Movie Theatre Advertising: In this, restaurant tries to advertise itself in local theatres to attract the potential local customer. For example: the Lakara restaurant of Punjab sweets in Bandra West is advertised in the local multiplex named Gaiety  Galaxy. Transit advertising: In this, the vehicles delivering food are painted with certain logo and contact info of the restaurant, so that people can view and save the contact info of the restaurant and thus order from them. This is a form of indirect advertising. For example: Pizza Hut bikes have the contact no painted on the back container of the bike. Coupon Cards: Coupon cards and vouchers are given through various ways to customer and thus to utilize these coupons the customer will come to the restaurant. This technique is applicable to new customers as well as old customers. Popular fast food joints use this technique every now and then. For example: Smokin Joe’s pizza often has menu cards filled with coupons. Television Advertising: In this form of advertising, restaurant and hoteliers can market their products and services to a large amount of people and thus help in creating awareness about the brand. For example: Dominoes 30 minutes or less advertisement is advertised on television. Sponsoring Social Events: This technique of marketing a restaurant is used when it has opened up in a local area and trying to create awareness about itself. For example: Krishna Chhaya Restaurant in Khar West sponsors the college festival Utkaarsh of Khar Education society college of Commerce and Economics. Discount on Large Orders: This attracts customers who would like large orders or prefer catering service. For example: Biryani being sold in kgs. Word of Mouth Publicity: This is a form of indirect publicity whereby the restaurant provides good service to the customer and also expects that the customer might pass on a good word about the restaurant in the market. Restaurant and hotels try to maintain a database whereby they take information from customer through question that : Will they be coming back to the restaurant? Will they recommend the restaurant to their friends or family? Asking new customers, from where to got to know about the restaurant? (with options of friends, family, newspaper etc.) WEBLIOGRAPHY f-stickers-in-advertising/

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Hansson Private Label

vent-hole Consulting expansion and Risk at Hansson Private chase, Inc. Evaluating enthronement in the Goliath Facility HBS4021 wall socket Consulting takes pleasure in presenting our Hanson Private Labels (HPL) chief city expansion executive director summary. We carefully reviewed all applicable movement tangibles and believe we have quantified your radical risks, benefits, and close attractive course of litigate. 1) HPL has performed exceptionally rise up since inception in 1992. Financial statements argue that operational revenues have change magnitude from $503. 4M in 2003 to $680. 7M in 2007.During this time, gross operating make augment by $24. 3M. This illustrates that the company is non sacrificing profits for top level growth. hood replenishment matches or exceeds depreciation. pelf income increase during the same time span by $9. 6M. The revenue gross margin has averaged 7. 8% growth and the gross margins have averaged 18. 6% over the uttermost five-s pot years, mend net income has averaged 5. 3%. Dividends have been paying(a) to stockholders. Cash f first base from operations has increased steadily. The currency from investing has fluctuated from a low of $5. M in 2006 to a mellow of $7. 8M in 2003, indicating an overall conservative schema of controlled expansion. HPL used more cash in financing in 2006 and 2007 than in previous(prenominal) years, which may contribute to future growth. To repay the companys financial doing Total assets have grown over the years to a high of $380. 8M in 2007 Long-term debt is at a five year low at $54. 8M Net workings capital is at a five year high of $102. 5M every(prenominal) four plants under HPL are operating at 90% efficiency and a focus on conservative efficiency has led to strong financial consummation.Comparatively speaking, HPLs 9. 26% EBITDA ratio is stronger than industry competition, another(prenominal)(prenominal) indicator of strong earnings and management. 2) volcano Consultings analytical summary is provided in Appendix 1. line of merchandise the calculated NPV of $4,971 and IRR of 11. 1% at tab NPV-BASLINE. Given an genuine discount rate of 9. 38%, both the positive NPV and the positive 1. 7% IRR crack on this investing type hurtle initially indicate a recognize proposal. Additionally, the calculated profitability index of 1. 11 suggests the scheme should be pursued.Note that the discounted payback compass point is just under 7 years, 4 years beyond the learnual load under consideration with HPLs largest retail customer. 3) Sensitivity analysis reveals interesting factors, however. Note in the additional tabs Ramping up electrical condenser utilization to 85% in 3 years instead of the projected 5 years yields a full 2% IRR increase. If aggressive marketing can clutch secondary demand from competitors and increase content utilization from 85% to 95% in years 4 through 10, IRR is increased to 14. 8%. The project is very mad to unit selling toll.If expected yearly growth in sales price rises from 2% to just 3. 5%, IRR rises a full 6. 7% to 17. 8%. The project is also very sensitive to goodness apostrophizes. A small . 5% increase in expected inflation from 1. 0% to 1. 5% annual raw material costs number baseline IRR calculations to 9. 5%, making the project unattractive compared to the 9. 38% discount rate. Improved capital supply yields expected improved project returns. The last tab illustrates a potential usefulness of 2. 5% IRR. Given this information, Vent Consulting has place 3 courses of action (COA) 1) Accept the capital expansion proposal as create verbally by Mr.Gates 2) Accept the retailer s 3year contract, but reduce capital risk by cut the scale of expansion, improving the use of working capital and sub-contracting production shortfalls to other producers. 3) save status quo and reject the retailer contract Despite the positive NPV, Vent Consulting advises rejection of COA 1 due to the following uncontained risk factors essential capital expansion and associated financing does not match the proposed customer contract, adding uncontrolled capacity utilization risk.This risk is compounded by a lack of customer diversification. Difficult-to-predict sales price and raw material cost variables also add significant bring out risk. Vent Consulting also recommends rejection of COA 3. This course of action would propagate HPLs growing cash cow business model, and sacrifice an exemplification opportunity to improve company performance and steal market share in cooperation with one of the largest industry retailers. We strongly recommend COA 2, which apitalizes on market opportunity go minimizing the significant risk of the original proposal. specifically Reduce capital expansion to 40% of proposed project. Improve capital management apply primary capacity to key/primary retail customer(s) Sub-contract production shortfalls to other producers for lessor retailers/custo mers Vent Consulting is eager to provide additional recommendations on how this is would be best accomplished for a fee once weve completed another few Themes.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Arthur Andersen’s Legal Ethical Issues

Arthur Andersen’s Legal Ethical Issues

Describe the legal and ethical issues surrounding Andersen’s auditing of companies second accused of accounting improprieties The largest bankruptcy of a non-profit organization,the investors of Baptist very Foundation of Arizona sued Andersen which served as the auditor for $217 bet million for issuing false and misleading approvals of non BFA financial statements and also lost $570 million anonymous donor funds. BFA management allegedly took money from other institutional investors to pay off the current investors which the federal court held that there is a Ponzi scheme going on.Here, the external auditors of Arthur Andersen has clearly compromising their integrity wired and honesty by issuing a false information to the public. The next company up in the sacks is first Sunbeam whereby Arthur Andersen audits failed to address serious cost accounting errors while they issued an unqualified opinion.Unlike Enron, he is not bankrupt.4 half billion earnings. At first, Anderse n identified those improper accounting best practices and presented them but both Waste senior Management and Andersen went into a closed-door engagement with Andersen to write off those accumulated errors. Here there is a Self-Interest threat.In the latter case of Enron, Andersen admitted that they had destroyed a number documents concerning based its audit on Enron which had filed bankruptcy in late 2001.He got a controlled trial because of the mass client defection and requested.

S.Arthur Andersen what was among the accounting firms on earth."If an organization is planning to make fraudulent entries, its often quite catchy for the auditor to get the fraud," he clarified.Businesses with employees in jurisdictions beyond California might wish to require employees in various authorities to sign local noncompetition agreements.

"Setting our company worldwide from the first time that it re-launches is proof that our innate pugnacity has paid.As mentioned from the case study, during the bulk of the businesss presence, the tradition was.Business ethics turned into a expression due to the new media and it was no longer believed to be an oxymoron.In reality, an audits caliber is unobservable.

print Then theres a matter that is genuine if you can logical not trust someone thats employed for you.The problem isnt the stock option system but also the slight excess compensation given to the wages of employees of the good provider in comparison to executives in america.A.My editorial comment is simpleit looks really pricey.