Monday, September 30, 2019

Michel Foucault and John Locke

The private realm, with family life as its foundation, has a significant place in western culture, which has its roots in the notion of pater familias or family head that formulates the family life as a unique kingdom in Roman law. The private sphere that includes the family life and means a realm outside the public sphere began to be used only in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This concept initially referred to the realm outside the dynamic or active social life. This idea of the private sphere outside of the public life and of the center of the private activities have forced some political thinkers to take part in theoretical discussions regarding the separation of the public and private spheres. According to Locke, as the foundation of political authority, the social contract emerges outside the family life. Accordingly, the private realm can be defined as the realm of women, symbolized by sentimentality, compassion, love, sympathy and generosity. Contrary to this, the public sphere is the realm of men, dominated by rationality, mutual exchange and observation in every aspect of social life. Despite inspiring the emergence of a state, Locke's understanding of the public sphere continues to live on with different social elements that have their own dynamism. For Locke, therefore, the public sphere has two dimensions: â€Å"political† and â€Å"social.† The objective of the defined political sphere is to protect the freedom of the public along with its life and property rights. This is demonstrated in the Second Treaties of Government, in which Locke offers three different realms: the â€Å"private sphere† of women, the â€Å"public sphere† of men in general and the â€Å"political sphere† of state servants such as members of the police, military and judiciary. Contrary to Locke, Foucault focuses primarily on the notion of the public sphere merged with political authority. In this regard, â€Å"General Will† dominates public life as the product of men who have gone beyond family life. Such an understanding sharply differentiates Rousseau from Locke. In any case, it was Foucault who laid the foundation for a notion of a transcendental state that overshadows the public life dominated by free men. In Foucault's view, men who make up the differentiating public life outside of family life become the objects of civil society in a transcendental state. This transcendental state, he further argues, first combines all unique aspects and elements of different societal groups within its metaphysical container and then enforces its own ideology in order to claim control over them. In sum, as opposed to Locke, for Hegel and Rousseau there are two opposing spheres: a private realm belonging to women, children and the disabled, and a public life belonging to men who are united to the state structure with compassion and affection. It is thus evident that their conception of the public sphere is intimately connected to the political authority. In his Rà ©umà © des cours, those summaries published for all the prestigious Collà ¨ge de France lectures, the chapter entitled â€Å"Il faut dà ©fendre la socià ©tà ©Ã¢â‚¬  (â€Å"Society must be defended†) makes passing reference to race. Foucault was concerned with how war came to be an analytic tool of historical knowledge and of social relations at large. Moreover, the issue of racism in the lectures seems ancillary and oddly displaced. This is not a prelude to an argument that we have all missed the â€Å"real† Foucault, and that the key to a genealogy of racism is waiting for us in his taped lectures rather than in published form. Both texts are concerned with the emergence of an alternative discourse to that of sovereign right, to â€Å"a discourse of the war of races† that Foucault will identify as the first â€Å"contre-histoire† (counter-history) to a unitary conception of power represented in a historical discourse that served the sovereign state. Racism emerges as one of several possible domains in which technologies of sexuality are worked out and displayed. In the lectures, state racism is not an effect but a tactic in the internal fission of society into binary oppositions, a means of creating â€Å"biologized† internal enemies, against whom society must defend itself. On the issues of race and colonialism, we can notice several contradictory impulses in Foucault's work: a focus on racism and an elision of it, a historiography so locked in Europe and its discursive formations that colonial genocide and narratives about it could only be derivative of the internal dynamics of European states. The studied absence of the impact of colonial culture on Foucault's bourgeois order did more than constrain his mapping of the discourses of sexuality. In the end, Foucault confined his vision to a specific range of racisms, a range that students of colonial history who might choose to follow his genealogical methods would be prompted to reject. English political and social thought in the seventeenth century is characterized by the idea of possessive individualism. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it became an underlying and unifying assumption. Its â€Å"possessive† quality is found in the condition of the individual as essentially the proprietor of his (or presumably her) own person or capacities, owing nothing to society for them. Thus for theorists such as John Locke, the individual â€Å"pre-figures† society, and society will be happy and secure to the extent that individuals are happy and secure. Not only does the individual own his or her own capacities, but, more crucially, each is morally and legally responsible for himself or herself. Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from relations with others except those relations entered into voluntarily out of self-interest. Human society is simply a series of market relations between self-interested subjects. For Foucault it is guided by an â€Å"invisible hand.† For John Locke society is a â€Å"joint stock company† of which individuals are shareholders. Paradoxically, while the impact of individualism was dominant in relation to the social, political, educational, and scientific ideas of the late nineteenth, early twentieth century, this period actually marked a major extension of the State's authority over every aspect of the individual's life and to every corner of society. The problems of urbanization, population increases, immigration, war, and a major concern with eugenics gave rise to more regulation and control, leading to the State's encouragement of various forms of social research. Locke argues that since absolute monarchs claim the right to be â€Å"Judges in their own Cases,† because absolute monarchy is based on the assumption that no individual on earth has a right to challenge the legitimacy of the will of an absolute monarch, it is irrational because of the rational prohibition against any man being a judge in his own case. Moreover, since an absolute monarch claims the right to absolute power and control over all his subjects, it is irrational because any attempt to exert absolute power and control by one person over another violates the rational precepts of the law of nature and establishes a state of war between individuals. As such, an absolute monarch is held by Locke to be in a state of war with his subjects, and since civil government is established to prevent a state of war, absolute monarchy provides no â€Å"remedy for the Inconveniences of the state of nature,† for it is but a continuation of a state of war. In this manner, Locke presents us with his criticism of the rational and moral legitimacy of absolute monarchy, and thereby establishes the principle that a necessary condition of legitimate government is that it be limited in the permissible exercise of political power and authority. Limited government, that is, becomes the legitimate alternative to any form of absolute government. Furthermore, it is also possible to understand that, for Locke, the law of nature establishes the legitimate limitation on government, in the sense that the exercise of political power and authority is only legitimate if it protects the natural rights of individuals to â€Å"Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions.† At this point, Locke introduces the idea of consent, by claiming that since individuals are, â€Å"by nature, all free, equal and independent, no one can be put out of this Estate and subjected to the Political Power of another, without his own Consent.† Accordingly, it logically follows that the transformation from a nonpolitical existence to a political one can only legitimately be accomplished by the individual consent of each individual in the state of nature. Does this particular use of the idea of consent constitute anything more than formal conformity to the methodological requirements of contractarian thought, or does it have a more substantive status within the context of Locke's political thought? In relation to the issue of subjectivity, Foucault rejects identity-based politics rooted in the notion of an historical, pre-discursive â€Å"I.† For Foucault â€Å"identities† are â€Å"self representations† or â€Å"fixations† that are neither fixed nor stable. The subject is not a â€Å"thing† outside of culture, and there is no pure â€Å"state of nature† to ground history either. The subject is not a substantive entity at all but rather a process of signification with an open system of discursive possibilities. The self is a regulated but not determined set of practices and possibilities. Conclusion Asserts Foucault, â€Å"If the genealogist refuses to extend his faith in metaphysics, if he listens to history, he finds that there is ‘something altogether different' behind things; not a timeless and essential secret, but the secret that they have no essence or that their essence was fabricated in a piecemeal fashion from alien forms.† Contrary to what John Locke would contend about power, unity (whether of consciousness proper or the continuity of personal experience) is not the essence of subjectivity. Unity is a mask for an interplay of anonymous forces and historical accidents that permits us to identify subjects, to identify ourselves, as specific human beings. Unity-identity-is imposed on subjects as the mask of their fabrication. Subjectivity is the carceral and incarcerating expression of this imposition, of the limitations drawn around us by discourses of truth and practices of individualization; but seen through the â€Å"differential knowledge† of genealogy, the identity of subjectivity collapses. RESOURCES John Locke â€Å"Second Treaties of Government,† Two Treaties of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), chapter VII. Foucault M. (1997k). â€Å"Society must be defended†. In M. Foucault, Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth: The Essential Works (Ed. P. Rabinow, trans. R. Hurley) (pp. 5966). Allen Lane, London: Penguin Press.   

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Fourth Quarter English Interpretive Paper Essay

A Man for All Seasons, by Robert Bolt illustrates the adult life of Sir Thomas More. In this play, the Common Man portrays man and his vices and sins showing the ordinary man of every age, class, culture, and society. Bolt uses the Common Man in the roles of the steward, boatman, and jailor to show how man can easily sin. Common Man exhibits man’s immorality through the roles of the steward, boatman, and jailor, in A Man for All Seasons. Christian virtues are lacking in the Common Man’s role of the steward. The Common Man’s character, the steward, disrespects Rich by the snubbing manner of which he speaks to Rich. Likewise, when he spies on Thomas More he is being disloyal and dishonest. (pp. 40-42) Furthermore, the steward exhibits greediness by spying on More for Richard Rich, Thomas Cromwell, and Signor Chapuy in exchange for money. (pp.40-42) In addition, pride is conveyed towards Rich by the steward when he behaves as if he superior over Rich. (pp.104-105) Vices are seen in the steward’s behavior. The Common Man in the role of the boatman demonstrates a lack of morality. The boatman displays dishonesty when he tries to overcharge Thomas for his boat ride home. (p. 25) Likewise, he is being greedy as he wants more money than he should receive for giving Thomas a ride home. (p. 25) Moreover, his disobeyed the law by ignoring the fixed boat fares. (p. 25) The boatman’s actions are sinful. Lack of morals can be observed in the Common Man in the role of the Jailer. The vice of greed is seen by the Jailor when he is willing to accept fifty guineas from Cromwell in exchange for information about Thomas More. (p. 135) Likewise, the jailor is dishonest when he is willing to take anything that Thomas says and tell it to Cromwell to use as evidence against Thomas More in court. (pp. 135-136) Lack of charity is exhibited by the jailor when he does not allow Thomas’s family to visit Thomas at the jail. (pp. 145-146) The Common Man, as the jailor, displays vices. The role of the steward, boatman, and jailor played by the Common Man reveal the lack of mans morals in A Man for All Seasons. Disrespect, dishonesty, greed, pride, lack of charity, and disobedience are witnessed in the words and actions of the three characters. The vices represent the basic character of the Common Man who is every person in every age, class, race, and society. Bolt’s play, A Man for All Seasons instructs one to avoid sin and protect his morals and Christian faith. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Robert Bolt, The Man for All Seasons(New York, NY; Vintage International, 1990),pp. 4-5. All subsequent references will be noted in the text.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Analysis of Homeland Security Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analysis of Homeland Security - Assignment Example Although security experts agree that the two are the greatest security threats to the country’s homeland security, opinion is still divided as to which of the two poses the greatest security threat to the United States homeland security. However, after conducting a thorough analysis of the operations of the Americanization of terrorist groups and the home has grown terrorists over the past few years, it goes without doubt that the current greatest threat to the U.S homeland security is the home has grown/lone wolf terrorist groups. Firstly, the events that have happened in the recent past shows that the terrorist has changed their tactics to from plotting a large-scale attack on the homegrown or lone wolf attack. With the growth of the internet, homegrown extremists and sympathizers of the so-called American enemies are increasingly becoming radicalized via the internet (Olsson, 2014; Gartenstein-Ross and Grossman, 2009). Some even travel to different countries where they are trained and come back to carry out attacks on their own without any assistance. For instance, investigations have unearthed that the two brothers who carried the Boston Bomb attacks were radicalized through the internet by the Islamist propaganda. These were American citizens who had no any affiliation with the terror groups such as the Al-Qaeda (Zennie, 2014; Herrmann, 2014). The Boston Marathon attack clearly demonstrates that the biggest threat to the U.S. homeland security is the homegrown/lone wolf terror groups and not the Americanization of terror groups as some experts conjecture. The Boston Marathon resulted in the death of three people and left about 264 others wounded after detonating two grenades.  To make matters worse, ISIS has increased propaganda campaign on the social media, which has seen a huge number of Westerners move to Iraq and Syria to support them in the fight (CNN, 2014).   

Tort Law Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Tort Law - Assignment Example However, a loss should have taken place for the injured party, due to the breach of the duty of care. This makes it necessary for claimants to prove that the defendant had owed them a duty of care.2 Before the year 1932, liability in negligence was restricted to finding a duty of care. This was done on a case by case basis and in situations where there had been a pre – existing relationship between the parties. The decision in Donoghue v Stevenson changed this situation. 3 In this case, the first general rule for establishing a duty of care was established. With this decision the contemporary law of negligence and the neighbour test were formulated. The House of Lords held that Donoghue could claim in tort, even though the contract was between her friend and the seller. With this ruling, manufacturers were placed under a duty of care to consumers.4 The decision in Donoghue v Stevenson, developed the principle of duty of care. The importance of this decision made it a legal pri nciple. It related to the concept of duty of care, and formed the basis for the product liability of manufacturers. In this case, the plaintiff underwent distress on seeing the dead snail in her ginger beer. Afterwards, she fell ill, and the House of Lords ruled that the defendant owed her a duty of care. ... 6 As such, duty of care is an important element of tort cases. In cases of negligence, causation provides connection between breach of duty and the resultant damage. Many tests have been formed, in order to find causation. These tests, were mainly aimed at analysing an event that can be categorised as a breach of duty and that can be claimed as the cause of the loss sustained by the claimant.7 Consequently, a tort of negligence takes place, when there is breach of a duty of care, which causes damage to the claimant. In Caparo Industries plc v Dickman,8 a three stage test was formulated. First there should have been a foreseeable harm to the claimant. Second, the claimant and the defendant should have been sufficiently close. Third, it should be reasonable and just to impose a duty of care. As such, there are two requirements with regard to the neighbour test. The first of these relates to a reasonable anticipation of harm. The second requirement is that of proximity. The rule establi shed in the Caparo case has been popular with the courts. This can be seen in cases where a duty of care is owed to third parties in the tort of negligence. The facts of the Caparo case are detailed below. 9 In Caparo Industries plc v Dickman, the books of a public company had been audited by a firm of accountants. Afterwards, this firm of accountants advised the plaintiff, about the financial status of this public company. The plaintiff relied on this advice and invested in the company. This investment resulted in considerable loss to the plaintiff. As a result, the plaintiff claimed damages from the firm of accountants. The House of Lords, ruled that there was no liability. There was insufficient proximity between these

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Questions on Hans Selye's Stress Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Questions on Hans Selye's Stress Theory - Essay Example If situations are supposed by the human being as traumatic, then this assessment will set in action a chain of stress-impacts mechanisms comprised of integrated behavioral and physiological, hard work to get used to the environmental hassle (Van, 2004). Stress is the unpleasant response people have to extreme pressures or other types of challenge located on them. There is an apparent dissimilarity between stress, which can generate a buzz and be an inspiring issue, and stress, which can happen when this stress becomes extreme (Unamaka, 1995). Causes of stress According to Hans Selye's Stress Theory, workplace stress is tough to pact with at the optimum of era, but when joblessness is elevated, redundancies are ordinary and struggle for promotions is so ferocious it’s terrifying, workplace stress steps go all the way through the roof. The difficulty with workplace stress is that it is habitually tough to recognize other than a universal emotion of stressful life at work (Taffinder, 2006). Being Overworked This is possibly the most clear of all the stress factors. If one has too a good deal work to do, scarce time to do it in, and awkward stress on one to meet those deadlines, yet the most competent worker is going to sense the intensity. Being Underworked Not common as a clear stress feature, but in the existing situation where redundancies are still being completed, no one needs to be viewed to be shaking their thumbs and being paid to do zilch on the organization moment. This is particularly solid if you have no jurisdiction over your workflow (Stankard, 2002). Job Security Situations have been hazy for more than 50 years and job safety does not really survive any longer. Although, in an economic recession when workers are laid off and hiring are not, the stress of not getting job safety can be gravely overstated. Job Succession There is nobody who wishes to linger constant position, on equal salary for an unlimited time, however, numerous skills are at the present stifled by bazaar in which there exist no employment or endorsement is being completed. Even though, you might have a occupation, not being capable to obtain to your subsequently phase can make you deem bored and fascinated, which can be stressful. The Incorrect Job When one discovers that he is in an occupation that you have inadequate skills to deal with, you will feel like one who is plummeting from the start.   When you cannot ask for guidance since one does not desire to confess one is not the right candidate for the job the stress increases to open up (Ralph, 1981). Guilt Traditions The unlucky result of a being short of job safety is that no one needs to attach their head above the ramparts and confess to mistakes in a situation that it can cost them their work. Unluckily, in this type of traditions, if one cannot confess to mistakes that one is improbable to evolution and be trained. In addition, when it comes to indicative the reason of issues that have arisen can create an ambiance of terror and wariness that is extremely stressful to job in everyday situations. Bad Management Being deficient in durable and successful organization can make a team wandering and persons in a situation of muddle puzzlement that is awfully stressful. On the contrary, over-management and small administration are claustrophobically stressful for personnel and put down no space for originality or enlargement. Harassment One might believe that when you leave suddenly the playing field bullying becomes a thing of the

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Explain in your own words the difference between the three paradigms Essay

Explain in your own words the difference between the three paradigms - Essay Example The interactive paradigm caters for relationships and interactions between different stakeholders in the nursing environment. In particular, this paradigm encompasses the interactions and relations between nurses and their patients or clients. On the same note, the paradigm integrates nursing systems into the interactive process. In other words, the interactive paradigm explores and explains how patients/clients relate with their nurses, as well as how these two parties fit into the larger nursing practice. Finally, the unitary process paradigm seeks to account for the entire nursing environment by bringing every party involved in nursing practices into a common pool of change units. This paradigm unites practitioners, patients/clients, and the nursing setting in a way that goes beyond common interactions and relations. This paradigm fits my nursing philosophy because it acknowledges the role of change in nursing practices. In this respect, practitioners, patients/clients, and the nursing environment unite to make nursing practices more effective and efficient. In the process, the outcome exhibits improved performance that benefits the entire field of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Different Types of Writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Different Types of Writing - Essay Example Each of the above types of writing had unique requirements. This enhanced the interactivity of the course since I carried out researches and brainstormed ideas with the view to constructive effective pieces. My strength is on research. I enjoy reading and I love science-based subjects. A read numerous books and articles on the internet and can, therefore, compile descriptive articles. I love justifying actions through provable scientific and psychological theories. With such abilities, I often wrote better argumentative and expository essays than I did the narratives. As explained earlier, my greatest weaknesses include visualizing actions and creating fictional plots. My imagination remains limited to the scientific theorems and observable realities. Such validated my inability to write effective narratives since the type of essay required effective use of descriptive words coupled with an equally avid imagination in creating conflicts. My best work was the argumentative essay. This type of essay requires one to carry out researches and adopt a position in an argument. After this, a writer must provide adequate support for his reasoning by giving rational thought and appropriate examples where necessary. The fact that such writings are neither right nor wrong makes the experience even more interesting. The quality of the papers relies on the author’s ability to explain his thoughts effectively thus convincing the audience on a particular viewpoint. My worst work was on a narrative.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Biomedical Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Biomedical Ethics - Essay Example According to Starson, taking the medication would disrupt him from pursuing his research; being a gifted theoretical physicist, he believed that this research was the only reason he felt his life carried a meaning. In this sense, being unable to carry on with it would simply render his life â€Å"useless† and â€Å"meaningless.† However, the physician felt that Starson's refusal was informed by his inability to appreciate the value of treatment. Consequently, the physicians petitioned to have Starson's treatment decision transferred to a surrogate. Though the petition was granted, Starson would later appeal, and the petition was reversed at the Supreme Court of Canada. The Supreme Court held that a patient, in this case Starson, was not required to make a decision that is in their â€Å"best interest† as determined by the physician, and thence they are permitted to disagree with a treatment recommendation. The Court also reasoned that Starson was a competent pati ent capable of making his own medical decisions. This case has both legal and ethical implications; firstly, this study delves into examining the ethicalness in a physician imposing treatment, and secondly, the study also looks at physicians’ position in determining a patient’s â€Å"best interest†: whether they are entitled to make this decision on behalf of the patient and how far can they go with this. The study will also look at the concept of informed consent and the idea of competence. Argument 1 The above case represents a conflict of these two rather ethical considerations. On the one hand, the physician feels compelled to do what he believes is in the best interest of the patient. On the other hand, the patient feels that it is his right to refuse medication based on his own grounds. Under these circumstances, how far is the physician expected to go with his persistence? Most legal cases, not only in Starson’s case, often uphold the position of t he patient. This is referred to as patient autonomy. The principle of patient autonomy states that competent patients have the opportunity to choose among medically indicated treatment and to refuse any unwanted treatment. Under these circumstances, the physician must respect the patient’s decision. It is necessary to understand that treatment decisions are not only based on objective medical considerations but also involve a considerable level of personal value judgments and preferences (Meier, Isaacs, and Hughes 95). Therefore, to some extent, the physician may compel a patient to take a certain medication not only because it is the right and objective medical step but also because he feels, based on his values and preferences, it is the right thing. For the latter, he is imposing his personal feelings, not professional mandate, to the patient. In these cases, a physician may be ethically driven to compel a patient to take medication because he feels it is the right thing t o do. However, it is essential to note that a physician demonstrates respect for human dignity, a biomedical ethical consideration, when he acknowledges the freedom and right of the patient to make choices based on their own beliefs and values (Kluge 7). Perhaps another consideration arising from Starson’s case is the idea of sound medical treatment. Starson, for some reason, felt that the medication offered was disruptive and would interfere with his ability to complete his physics research. Indeed, physicians are ethically forbidden to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Trans-Cultural Counseling Essay Example for Free

Trans-Cultural Counseling Essay One of the greatest challenges in counseling today is being able to deliver services that respond to the social developments that translate to responsive and effective psychological care. Hand in hand with globalization, people are not only having to deal with the social changes but also have to deal with the accelerated pace of these developments. Growing cultural diversity, economic challenges and globalization are a few of the major factor shaping society today. D’Ardenne and Mahtani, (1989) were among the ones to raise awareness regarding the issues that highlight the needed competencies and review of previous standards and approaches for counseling services. According to the article published by the Clinical Psychology Forum, â€Å"Racially and Culturally Appropriate†, recognizing culture and ethnicity are essential to create programs that consider the overall perspective of the individual and the circumstances of conditions that reflect a realization the pressures that individuals and groups because of the developing social scenarios. This is to provide emotional and psychological support for those that are most challenged which are often also are cultural minorities, the economically challenged, the youth and the elderly. Trans-Cultural Challenges Continuing research in to the nature of human psychology and mental health is now providing mental health care professional more insights to develop treatment, therapy and rehabilitation that is more sensitive to the needs of patients but also considers more the reality of patients’ lives. Particularly since the 1970’s, mental and psychological health services have begun to realize the need to revolutionize the treatment of mental illness. Developments in technology and health care services are changing the field of mental health nursing. Concurrent researches in the fields of psychology and sociology have revealed the importance of mental health and the programs that promote and support the same objectives. These developments have considered more factors of the state of human condition and the realities that they contend with. And what is most critical in understanding the human condition is understanding the individual in terms of his history, culture and experience. Mahtani and Marks (1994) point out that the valuation trans-cultural issues must be rooted in the most basic approaches and perspectives of counselors and psychiatrists. Their opinion is that psychology services must not just equate it as a factor in dealing with their clients, but rather see it as a pervasive and everlasting component of the individual. It is then prescribed that services should be able to address not only known conditions but also those that are yet recognized or have yet to develop. The objective is not just to be able to recognize trans-cultural issues but also to develop proficiency in dealing with related issues in the future. The influence of trans-cultural issues is both direct and indirect. It develops form social conditioning, experience and perception. Though it is a very significant influence to individuals, they are not reliable in terms of establishing standards for approaches. Therefore, one should consider them as theoretical precepts that have to be proven true first before being considered a factor in the case or session (Davies Neal, 1996). In the edition of Gender and Power in Families edited by Perelberg and Miller, they site that in the case of genre roles in the family, there are unique dynamics that contribute to the roles assigned to each of the member that influence how the manner by which individuals’ roles in other groups or situations in work, their personal lives or generally in society. However they also mention that though individuals are molded by these roles, the new groups or scenarios that they encounter other than their families may encourage the development of similar roles or discourage them equally. Counseling and Culture   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How does culture impact counseling? It affects by its very foundations: the definition of normality depends significantly on the perspective by which it is defined. The problem of defining normalcy and any subsequent counseling or treatment is because it is so closely associated with conformity that it becomes difficult to universalize considering differences in norms which is greatly defined by the cultural majority (Mahtani Marks, 1994). For example, the utilization of normality is critical in theorizing the cause of mental disorders. Aside from creating serving as standard to measure deviation, it can also be used to establish statistical characteristics and tendencies for the population. Davies and Neal consider the case of homosexuality. Though it has been taken off the list of psychological and even a general acceptance, there still a significant amount of negativity attached to it. And this is not just by religions or societies that still consider it an abnormality. Perceptions attached to homosexuality are a cause of identification even in societies that have accepted it. Either way, it is an important factor in evaluating patient problems, expected outcomes of mental illnesses and the needed rehabilitation and treatment according to Perelberg and Miller. Undeniably, a person is a product of his self and the manner by which his environment affects him. In all theoretical models regarding the development of a personality, the conscious person is supposed to be motivated by internal interactions within his person. These two levels of personality interact with his environment and affect him individualistically developing his unique personality and psychological identity (D’Ardenne Mahtani, 1989). In both levels, culture has a role: the definition of the internal person is influenced by his culture and at the same time, the society he moves in responds to culture as well. Professional Implications   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The sensitivity to cultural issues are critical in being able to asses and develop treatment for conditions. Thus, the recognition of cultural issues and their consideration in the development of programs should become a priority of every institution and professional. This, from the   work of Mahtani and Marks, includes the need to identify what the cultural perception and influences of patients and psychologist, counselors and other metal health professionals are. This must then be communicated to the educational and training of professional.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There should be a realization that the insensitivity to these issues can result to the alienation and disenfranchisement or members of the society. D’Ardenne and Mahtani believe that there can be debilitating effects: it deters those with culture related issues from being able to be productive members of the society because they feel that they are not part or valued by society. This stems from their inability to access social and economic opportunities regardless of their availability. Professionals’ continuing education is one of best strategies to keep at pace with these researches and developments. Authorities in the field judge that there is a need to appraise model for continuing professional development not just to ensure that patients get the best care but also to afford career enrichment for professionals. Studies have indicated that most professionals are given very little opportunity, motivation or alternatives for professional development regarding cultural issues which has limited the professional development and skills regarding the issue. Therefore, efforts to alleviate whatever conditions that contributes to negative effects or limiting effects of cultural should be a priority concern. This involves the resolution of the issues not only from the perspective of clients but also just as importantly on the part of the counselor. Counselors are aware that they should remain impartial but there should now greater realization if perceptions of clients are being influenced by the counselor’s own cultural perspectives. Conclusion Multiculturalism is not just about culture, its core objective is to be able to incorporate different heritages to create a society that celebrates all the richness of humanity. It is the mark of a society that embraces the world and lives unafraid of the unknown. It is the foundation of a just and broadminded society. The development of a multicultural society is a reflection of true social progress. Most of the conflicts in human history were initiated by forms of cultural intolerance. A comprehensive understanding of the significance and principles of how trans-cultural issues influence diagnoses, conditions and treatment is a knowledge base that all professionals should have. There are many issues that can effect trans-cultural issues among them are disabilities, gender, social class, educational attainment, cultural notions and age. These factors create a great range of treatments and patient needs. At the same time, it also creates a wide range of possible treatment outcomes and interventions. Regardless of the issues, it should be understood that if trans-cultural issues are not fully addressed or responded to, there can be no comprehensive progress in communicating with the subject. Sensitivity to theses issues afford better mental and psychological health and have the potential of increasing greater awareness and sensitivity in society as a whole.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Analysis of Forgetfullness, by Billy Collins Essay Example for Free

Analysis of Forgetfullness, by Billy Collins Essay This poem is really easy to identify with. The first 4 stanzas are clearly relating the reader to the poem. Everyone at some point has to learn these general, seemingly useless facts. â€Å"A state flower† â€Å"The capital of Paraguay† so arbitrary, but so true in that this brings back memories of 3rd or 5th grade for almost all of us, it is bound to strike a chord with the reader. This is also coupled with a slightly nostalgic loss of these facts in the first stanza, as slowly the individual sections of a book (that you as the reader once clearly enjoyed) are systematically removed from your memory by time. Then the tone shifts from musing about facts we don’t remember, to our inability to remember them. It begins to get darker. This is useful contrast from the imagery that the reader experiences during the first few stanzas, remembering childhood, and innocence. Juxtaposed is the now darker â€Å"mythological river† described as vague that, dauntingly, is leading to oblivion. The hopeless tone thus has that much more impact as we make our way to our own â€Å"oblivion† or death, where we will join the dead: â€Å"those who have even forgotten how to swim and how to ride a bicycle.† Then Collins provides a justification for our wanting to remember, wanting to enrich our every moment, as soon memories will be pointless. Really, in the end this is providing a more inherent worth to memories than they ever had before, because of the fleeting nature of life that Collins describes. Not in a fun, youthful â€Å"carpe diem† way, Collins is showing how short we have to live. Only from this presentation can the reader then make the leap that we ought to cherish these good memories, and make good memories, such as the â€Å"moon (out of the) love poem† in the closing lines of the work.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Social Work Law Problem Question

Social Work Law Problem Question Melanie, a social worker working for the social service department of the local authority, has just been assigned a possible child protection case as the nursery school attended by a child called Sophie aged 3, has alerted them about their concerns about her. The school are worried about Sophie as she has recently become withdrawn and has not been playing and interacting with the other children. She also comes to nursery sometimes looking rather unkempt and dirty and a couple of weeks ago when the children were discussing what they eat for breakfast, Sophie said she doesnt have breakfast. Sophie has not been at nursery for the past week. Melanie arranged to pay a visit to Vicky, Sophies mother and discovered the following by way of background. Sophies father is Darren who lives with them intermittently. Darren has been violent to Vicky when she was pregnant with Sophie and she obtained an injunction against him and they separated before Sophie was born. However, they resumed their relationship when Sophie was 6 months and since then Darren has lived either with Vicky and Sophie or he often stays with his mother when there has been an argument. Vicky seemed depressed and said there had been an incident at the weekend and Darren has gone back to his mothers. The house is dirty and Sophie is home is still home from nursery. Melanie notices how thin Sophie was and also that she had bruises on her right arm which Vicky says were as a result of a fall in the playground at nursery. Melanie arranged to pay Vicky a visit again the same time the following week and when she turned up no-one answered the door. She asked a neighbour passing by whether they had seen Vicky and/or Sophie. They replied they hadnt seen them for a few days but heard Vicky shouting and swearing at Sophie in the garden the other day. They said they saw Darren outside the house yesterday. Melanie is seeking your advice as to how the local authority could proceed next. Advise her as to the duties of the local authority in this situation, and what her legal options are, whether or not Vicky co-operates. Ensure that you provide Melanie with information not just on the measures that can be taken in the short term, but also, in the long term if necessary. Following a referral from the school, the local authority need to consider what harm Sophie may be facing and the appropriate solution needed. Clearly, concerns are expressed in the instant case as to whether Vicky and Darren are properly fulfilling their parent responsibility. Just as the Children Act 1989 imposes duties on parents, it also imposes duties on the local authority. The Children Act 1989 s47 requires the local authority to investigate cases where there is reasonable cause to suspect that the child or children concerned are suffering or are likely to suffer significant harm. The Act requires the local authority to act, wherever possible, in partnership with the parents of the children. Encouraging co-operation between parents and local authority and maintaining, wherever possible, the care of the child within the family are the guiding philosophies of the Act. Sophie satisfies the test for children in need, hence, the local authority has a statutory duty under the Childr en Act 1989 s17(10)(a) as It would appear that both Darren and Vicky seem unconcerned about the difficulties that their child is suffering; the issue is how to endorse Sophies welfare long term. There are two long-term child protection measures in the Children Act 1989, the care order (Children Act 1989 s33) and the supervision order (Children Act 1989 s35). It is suggested that the care order is the more appropriate order. As Sophies parents are not considerate, the more coercive powers of the care order, including the local authority gaining parental responsibility under Children Act 1989 s33(3) may be necessary. It seems working with the family by providing support would be ineffective and instead a more coercive approach might be necessary under Children Act 1989 Part IV to assist parents and children in need. This general duty to children in need requires the local authority to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Sophie has not been attending school, she is physically thin and has been verbally and physically abused. In order to obtain a care order in respect of Sophie, the local authority will first have to satisfy the threshold criteria in the Children Act 1989 s31. These are that they are satisfied that the child, here Sophie, is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm due to lack of parental care or to be being beyond parental control. This test does seem to be satisfied. Harm is defined in the Children Act 1989 s31(9) and it is clear from Re O (A Minor) (Care Order: Education: Procedure) (1992) that this can include truancy. Any application made under the Children Act 1989 will have the childs welfare as the paramount consideration s 1(1) and the court will be reluctant to intervene unless it can be shown that the making of an order is better than leaving things as they are s1(5). An education supervision order is made on application, usually to the Family Proceedings Court, wh ere the local education authority acts in consultation with the social services. The Children Act 1989 s36 requires children of compulsory school age to attend school or else an education supervision order may be made. Sophie is of compulsory school age and it does seem that she is not being properly educated according to her needs, age and ability, given the amount of time during which she is absent from school. Section 36(5) creates a presumption that a pupil at a school who is not attending regularly is not being properly educated. Thus, it would seem that it would be possible to show to the court that Sophie is not being properly educated. If the court was satisfied of this, it could appoint a supervising officer to ensure that the child attends school. This supervising officer takes responsibility for guiding and assisting both the child, Sophie, and her parents, Vicky and Darren, in understanding the importance of education and laying down certain guidelines to ensure that Sop hie does attend school. The order will usually last for one year but it can be extended or conversely it can be discharged on application by the child, Sophie, or her parents or, if all is going well, by the education authority. If, however, the supervision order does not succeed in getting Sophie to attend school, then the local authority may need to consider the more drastic step of seeking a care order. A care order is available under the Children Act 1989 s31 and is only available once the local authority has carried out preliminary investigations to see if any action is necessary to safeguard or promote Sophie, see, 47(1). Generally, the local authority must consult both Sophie and her parents but, if the case is an urgent one or consultation may prejudice Sophies welfare, the local authority may act without consultation. In any application for a care order, both Sophie and her parents must have notice and be made respondents to the application. Since Sophie is a child it is usually necessary to appoin t a childrens guardian to act to safeguard her interests. The childrens guardian will talk with Sophie and try to ascertain Sophies feelings and wishes in regard to the present position. Sophie is obviously entitled to be consulted and clearly her co-operation will be essential for the smooth running of any future plans concerning him. The statutory grounds for a care order are found in the Children Act 1989 s31. The Family Proceedings Court must be satisfied that the child is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm. This does not require proof on the balance of probabilities that there will be harm in the future; it is enough to show a real, significant likelihood of harm see, Newham London Borough Council v AG 1993. Harm includes ill-treatment or impairment of health and development. In the present case, it does appear that Sophie is being ill-treated at home and her lack of attendance at school, and her parents apparent unconcern of the situation, do seem to indicate that maybe his health and development are being impaired. The second criterion under s 31 is that the harm or likelihood of harm is attributable to the care being given to the child or likely to be given to her if the order is not made, not being what it would be reasonable to expect a parent to give him, or secondly, the child being beyond parental control. This is an objective standard based on what a reasonable pa rent could or could not do, Lancashire County Council v A (2000). In Re O (A Minor) (Care Order) (1992) the persistent truancy of a child was deemed suitable for a care order to be made and this would be the case here. Since neither Darren nor Vicky is able to control Sophie to ensure that she attends school, or they do not particularly concern themselves over her attendance, this would show that it is not reasonable for them to behave in that way concerning the education of their 3-year-old daughter. Again, as with any Children Act 1989 order, the childs welfare is the paramount consideration see, s1(1) and, in order to determine what would be in Sophies best interest, the s1(3) checklist would be examined. The first consideration in the checklist would be the wishes of the child, Sophie. She is still a child and definitely at the age where the court would consider her wishes. However, this does not mean that she would be able to dictate to the court what she wished to do. Definitely, her disinclination to attend school would not result in the court deeming any care order unnecessary. In fact, her inability to behave maturely in respect of her education may indicate that her wishes will not carry a great deal of weight. The second criterion on the checklist is the childs physical, emotional and education needs. Clearly Sophie is in need of some guidance, and the fact that she is not attending school, she is a child who seems to be drifting through life. The apparent unconcern of her parents seems to indicate that something must be done for Sophie. However, whether this would necessarily require her to leave her home and be taken into the care of the local authority is another matter. Th e court may decide that a less draconian measure would be more suitable. If Sophie wishes to remain at home it may be that the shock of being threatened with removal will be enough to make her mend his ways. If the court is of the view that Sophie and her parents may be able to correct the defects with a little assistance from other persons, then maybe the education supervision order discussed earlier, or a supervision order, will be more appropriate. The supervision order under the s 31 criteria requires the threshold of harm in s 31 to be satisfied. However, the effect of a supervision order is very different. A supervision order does not vest parental responsibility in the local authority; instead, a supervising officer, either a local authority officer or a probation officer, is appointed to assist and befriend and advise the child and his parents ( s 35(1) ). The supervising officer will do what is necessary to ensure that the child is guided and that her welfare is promoted. U sually a supervision order lasts for one year but it can be extended up to three years by one application; to continue beyond the three-year period another application would be necessary. The supervising officer will try to give directions to Sophie: telling her to attend school; possibly also requiring her to participate in certain activities; and imposing obligations with the consent of Darren and Vicky to help them deal with Sophie and promote her welfare. In Oxfordshire County Council v L (1998) a supervision order was considered appropriate for six children. This was because the parents wanted to meet their obligations to their children, and with help from the local authority they were likely to be able to do so. Another issue is the verbal and physical abuse Sophie had. The incidents at school, the physical abuse and the verbal abuse at the garden, gives considerable cause for concern over Sophies health and well-being. Nevertheless, it is not clear that there is any actual abuse and the local authority should proceed with caution in this very delicate area. For now, regarding Sophie a case conference should be held in which the childs welfare and situation should be discussed. On the other hand, there is the concern that consultation with the parents and with Sophie may increase Sophies unease and could be detrimental by causing delay. Consequently, the local authority needs to act to get to the bottom of the problem and found out exactly what is concerning Sophie. If Sophie has been abused. One option would be to apply to the court for a child assessment order. Such an order is available to the local authority and will enable it to find out exactly what is going on in relation to the child. However, full notice must be given by the local authority to both the child and the childs parents and, at the hearing, the court must be satisfied that the local authority has reasonable cause to suspect that Sophie is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm; that an assessment of Sophies health and development is required in order to establish whether or not she is suffering harm; and that it is unlikely that an assessment will be made or made satisfactorily without a child assessment order. In this case the school report of Sophies behaviour does give rise to concern that Sophies has suffered some kind of harm. Her responses do not seem to be those of the average child in such a situation, her personality, gives for concern. There is no need to show on the balance of probabilities that Sophie is likely to suffer significant harm, just that there is a real likelihood. Vicky and Darrens response is somewhat dismissive and it does not seem likely that the local authority will be able to assess Sophie without a child assessment order. Such an order, if made, will only last for seven days and it does not affect Vicky and Sophies parental responsibility. The local authority has no parental responsibility during the lifetime of this order; the order merely requires Vicky and Darren to produce Sophie so that she can be assessed. This may mean that Sophie continues to live at home although it is possible for her to be assessed as an in-patient in hospital. If Sophie is to remain in hospital, then contact will usually be allowed under s43 between Sophie and her parents. There is the possibility that a child of such an age may refuse to consent to the assessment. Clearly, Sophie is a disturbed and upset child, but hopefully, with pr oper explanation and reassurance, she will be happy to comply with the order. If the local authority is frustrated in its enforcement of the child assessment order or if concern exists that more immediate protection is required for Sophie, then an emergency protection order under s44 of the Act may be sought. The basis of such an application is, first, that the local authority may apply if it has reasonable cause to believe that Sophie is likely to suffer significant harm if either she is not removed to accommodation provided by the local authority or she does not then remain in the place where she is being accommodated. A further option open to the local authority is to apply under s 44(1)(b) on the basis that enquiries are being made with respect to the child and that those enquiries are being frustrated by access to Sophie being unreasonably refused by the parents and the applicant will also need to show that they have reasonable cause to believe that access to the child is requi red as a matter of urgency. The emergency protection order is a very draconian measure; it gives the local authority parental responsibility for the duration of the order (s 44(4) and the local authority can take such action as is reasonable to safeguard or promote Sophies welfare. The court will authorise the childs removal to local authority accommodation or it will order that the child remains in any hospital or other place where the child is being accommodated prior to the order being made. The court will consider whether contacat should be allowed between Sophie and her parents and also whatever medical and psychiatric assessment is necessary. Usually the child will have contact with her parents but if it is considered that this would be detrimental to her welfare then contact can be refused and this refusal cannot be challenged. An emergency protection order lasts for eight days ( s 45(1) ), although it can be extended once more for a further seven days s45(6) if the court has cause to believe that, if it is not extended, Sophie will suffer significant harm. The emergency protection order can be challenged by the child and her parents and anyone else having parental responsibility for her, after 72 hours have expired. However, a challenge is not possible if the parties were given notice of the hearing and were present at it s45(11). Since the emergency protection order is a very dramatic step to take, the court will consider long and hard whether it is in the childs b est interest for such an order to be made. Clearly, in this case there are concerns as to what is troubling Sophie and it would seem that the parents attitude is somewhat ambivalent, given the concerns expressed by the local authority. Whether this is sufficiently significant to give rise to the need for an emergency protection order is debatable. Concern has frequently been expressed at the hasty removal of children from their parents care by local authorities; therefore, it may be that the local authority would be best served by making an application for a child assessment order in the instant case, since the evidence of abuse is not sufficiently overwhelming to justify the application for the emergency protection order. An emergency protection order should only be sought if the child assessment order is being thwarted by Vicky and Darren. If either the child assessment order or the emergency protection order produces evidence that Sophie is in fact being abused, then the local au thority will need to consider more long-term measures. The appropriate measure to take would be the care order under s 31 of the Act. The local authority may apply for a care order if it can establish the threshold criteria in s 31. The local authority must first satisfy the court that Sophie is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm and, secondly, that the harm or likelihood of harm is attributable to the care being given to Sophie or likely to be given to her if the order is not made, not being what it would be reasonable to expect a parent to give her; or that the child is beyond parental control. The evidence of Sophies distress at school and her change in personality, either under the child assessment order or emergency protection order, may substantiate the claim that Sophie is suffering significant harm. Harm under the Act means ill-treatment or impairment of health and development. Ill-treatment includes sexual abuse as well as physical and mental ill-treatment. I f Sophie has indeed been sexually abused by either or both of her parents, then the criterion of harm will be satisfied and clearly, if nothing is done, Sophie will continue to suffer this significant harm. It is also necessary to show that the harm is because of the care being given to the child by her parents. If the parents are responsible for the abuse or are failing to act to protect Sophie from it, then their actions are not those of the reasonable parent and the s 31 criteria will be established. Sophies welfare under s 1(1) of the Act is the crucial consideration and is paramount throughout. In cases of serious sexual abuse, it will be necessary to remove the child from the family environment so as to ensure that the abuse does not continue. The s 1(3) checklists must be applied and Sophies wishes must be ascertained. If she is being abused she will obviously have confused feelings about her parents and whether she wishes to remain with them or be removed into local authorit y care. This is not a case where the court can stand back and do nothing. The non-interventionist policy enshrined in s 1(5) of the Act will have to be put to one side as something needs to be done to ensure that Sophies well-being is safeguarded. Any care order that is made will last until Sophie is 18 unless it is discharged earlier either on application by the child, by her parents or by the local authority. Even though a care order is made, the local authority should consider the question of contact, especially in relation to the parents of the child. Usually contact will be allowed even though a parent may have abused the child. It will usually always be possible for the other innocent parent to see the child. Even the abuser may have limited supervised access to the child since it is often in the childs best interest for the relationship to be given the opportunity to be repaired. However, it is crucial to try to ensure that any abuse is not repeated. If Sophie is taken into c are by the local authority, the local authority has a duty under s 22 of the Act to promote the childs welfare and to consider Sophies wishes and those of her parents at all stages. The parental responsibility of Vikcy and Darren does not end on the making of the care order and the local authority will still try to keep them involved in the upbringing of their child where this is still in the childs best interest. The local authority will consult Sophie to see how she wishes her future to unfold and it will also consult her parents if possible. In making any decisions about the child, s 22(5) of the Act requires the local authority to take into account the wishes and feelings of the child and her parents, and also to take into account the childs religion, racial origin and cultural background. In conclusion, therefore, it can be seen that appropriate measures for the local authority are an education supervision order and, failing that, a care order or possibly a supervision order under s 31 of the Act, however, more stringent measures may be needed. First, an investigation by way of a child assessment order will be required or, in an emergency, an emergency prot ection order. If either of these measures discloses that Sophie is being abused then it will be necessary to make a care order under s 31 of the Act. In relation to both children any application must have their welfare as the paramount consideration, and consequently it will only be when the full facts are known about Sophie and Jack that the appropriate order can be sought.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Vik Muniz Photographs :: Essays Papers

Vik Muniz Photographs I observed a very unique series of photographs by Vik Muniz called Seeing is Believing. Vik Muniz’s images are not simply photography but are pictures of complicated pieces of art he has produced at earlier times. Utilizing an array of unorthodox materials including granulated sugar, chocolate syrup, sewing thread, cotton, wire, and soil Muniz first creates an image, sculpturally manipulates it and then photographs it. Muniz’s pictures include portraits, landscapes, x-rays, and historical images. One work that particularly caught my attention was a photograph called â€Å"Big James Sweats Bullets† from the series Sugar Children. The content or subject matter of the artwork is representational. The photograph depicts the hardworking children of sugar cane plantations in South America. This particularly photo is a portrait of a dark skinned boy, slightly overweight, standing and grinning. The photo is of neatly arranged granulated sugar across a piece of black paper which produces the image of the boy. Many different sensory properties compose the artwork. There is a soft light that seems very natural coming off the boy’s face. The light shines at the boy’s face at an elevated level, as if he were outside on a hot afternoon with the sun overhead. There is a wide range of tones from very bright, in the reflection off the boys cheeks to very dark in the skin of the boys face. Muniz does an excellent job using shadows to provide a feeling of depth and adding curves to the boys body and face. The shape of the boy is positive, but the background is not defined, allowing a negative shape or void in the picture. Although there is no actually texture on the photograph the texture from the original work of art is apparent. The use of sugar gives off a hazy effect preventing the photo from having a clear focus. The portrait of the boy has a frontal vantage point with his body centered and balanced on at all angles. This shows the expression on the boys face and the size of the boys body, which is important to the title of the work. When looking at the photograph the eyes are immediately drawn to the boys face and grin.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Green Auto Concepts Essay -- The Automobile Industry

With stringent federal fuel efficiency laws looming on the horizon, combined with growing technology that is becoming increasingly affordable, every major automaker is currently selling or developing an eco-friendly vehicle. The 2012 environmental flagship models are not just electric vehicles (EV), hybrids and fuel cell vehicles (FCV). In fact, great strides are being made to improve the performance and productivity of diesel, gasoline and natural gas vehicles as well. In saluting its five finalists in the 2012 Green Car of the Year, the Green Car Journal [] notes that each manufacturer has taken a different approach to creating green vehicles. "This year's finalists underscore there is no single solution to our transportation challenges," notes Editor Ron Cogan. "We have five exceptional answers to the question of how we are going to increase efficiencies, reduce tailpipe and CO2 emissions and decrease petroleum use. These unique approaches provide diverse choices as cars intelligently evolve toward a more environmentally compatible motoring future." Most efforts focus on increasing gas mileage, reducing emissions and assisting vehicles in driving more efficiently. Industry experts are touting 2012 as the year for auto technology thanks to some of these vehicular innovations: 1. Urban Electric Vehicle Revealed at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September, the futuristic looking BMW electric i3 [] and the hybrid-electric i8 are being billed as the first urban cars to produce zero emissions. The electric powertrain achieves 112 mpge (miles per gallon equivalent) and can run for 62 miles on a single c... solar energy companies, are investing in charging station infrastructures in an effort to encourage consumers to purchase EVs. Critics say the biggest concern for EV owners is not having refueling stations during long-distance trips. In early 2012, Nissan expects to expand its offerings of quick charge stations to the U.S., while Tesla Motors is offering free charging stations to loyal customers traveling between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Ford, General Motors, Daimler, Volkswagen, Audi, BMW and Porsche are collectively supporting a universal fast charge infrastructure [] that will work with any brand’s EV. The federal government is continuing its $7,500 tax incentive through 2012 for EV purchases, while California residents also benefit from a $1,500 state rebate.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Emperor Hirohito Essay

Emperor Hirohito ruled for 53 years, during those years, Japanese civilians invaded China, the Rape of Nanking happened, they attacked Pearl Harbor and Japan rose to become the world second economic superpower. He was the first Japanese Emperor to be welcomed into Europe. He married at age 16, was crowned prince in November 1921. He died in his 80’s of a sickness called Myocardial Infraction. In his early life at age 7 he was taught proper behavior by Maresoke Nayi at Peer’s School. Also, his parents hired two Confucian tutors for him to learn. A few years later at age 11 his father was crowned Emperor because the formal Emperor had died of old age. Hirohito was to marry at age 16 to a young Princess which name is Nagako Kuni who was only 14 at the time. Before he had married the princess he went and traveled around Europe and was the first Japanese prince who was welcomed by the royal queen herself. During the time he had traveled he became very interested in the study of Marine Science. He also developed an interest in golf, drinking tea and eating bread. After coming back from Europe he changed the law that said that royal family members could not travel the world and make new traditions. His main inspiration was watching how in Europe people could do as they please and not get judge for it. Around that same time his family had heard a rumor that said the Princess Nagako Kuni was colorblind, so Hirohito’s family decided to delay the wedding until they figured everything out. They didn’t get married until a year later in 1924. Just a couple of years later he had to become Emperor because of his father death (due to a mental illness). People refused to him as a god because of the way he ruled. Also, because nobody ever saw him. Hirohito was one who believed in democratic politics over any other thing. Due to this he everyone believed that Japan wanted to go to war with every single country. So many people had judged him very harshly for not putting himself together in the right time before the war. And his own military wanted to get someone more worthy of the thrown, not Hirohito. It was hard on him and even more because of the surprise attack f the two atomic bombs which were dropped an August 6-9, 1945 (O’Neil 1). Nobody knew what to do or how to do it. The only person that knew what to do was Hirohito. He had decided to surrender to Great Britain and United States and to see if that would make his people follow him again. Or maybe put him on their good graces. He ordered his government to make an unconditional surrender. Hirohito had to make a fast action and an effective plan for seizing power (Oâ€℠¢Neil 1). Even though he had to do all those things he never wanted to give in to those countries. He knew he could do better if he had done some military service. But he didn’t he had married young and did everything so fast due to his father’s death. But still no one gave him the credit for doing it. For this, he deserves considerable credit (O’Neil 1). He toured Europe in 1971, the first reigning Japanese monarch to visit abroad, and traveled to the United States in 1975 (Leaders 1). He was one of the first Japanese Emperor’s to do this. Later on in life he wrote a few books on Marine Science. It was one of the things that interested him in his younger ages. He has 7 children named: Akihito, Prince Hitachi, Atsuko Lkeda, Takako Shimazu, Shigeko Higashikuni, Kazuko Takasukasa, and Princess Hisa Sachiko. Hirohito’s reign was designated Showa, or â€Å"Enlightened Peace† (Leaders 1). But some people were relieved when he died and his son Crown Prince Akihito became Emperor. Even though they were glad there were disappointed because the Prince had married a commoner. Some contemporaries who lived in his time were Hitler and Hideki Tojo. Their roles in his life were that both of them had lived in the same days as Hirohito. And they never met in person but they had heard of each other. Emperor Hirohito was a very important person in his days because of the way he had treated his people he didn’t make any decisions with out considering the way they would have felt about it. After the war he had said â€Å"That most unfortunate war, which I deeply deplore. † The main reason he had said that was because of all the people who had lost their life just because of that war. Another quote he had said was â€Å"I made efforts to swallow tears and to protect the Japenese Nation. †

Monday, September 16, 2019

Two stories that show divisions or conflicts within communities

Both of the stories ‘The train from Rhodesia' and ‘Leela's Friend' illustrate divisions of classes and some of them result in conflicts. ‘The train from Rhodesia' is in an allegory form to convey the deep hatred of the author towards her racially divided home country – apartheid. ‘Leela's Friend' shows the class division by demonstrating the prejudice that people have on those who are low in hierarchy. ‘The train from Rhodesia' is about a train from Rhodesia ‘calling' into the station with all the white passengers on it and there are the vendors who crowd round the train trying to sell their wares. The train is personified by using verbs such as ‘creaking, jerking, jostling, gasping' and saying it has ‘a dwindling body behind it'. This emphasizes the classes divisions between the rich passengers on the train and the poor sellers in the station. The poverty of black people seems to be the reason for division. The ‘creases' in stationmaster's uniform and his ‘barefoot children' all give the impression of scarcity in the people inside the station. However, the girl on the train was ‘throwing' a ‘hard kind' chocolate to the dogs. This use of antithesis here accentuates the division – not only in class – but also in poverty. There is also contrast of the attitudes and feelings of the young man and the young woman. The twist of story at the end is that the young woman's rejection of the lion carving which her husband has bought for her and which she obviously admires. The man is ‘arguing with him for fun' while the woman's face is ‘drawn up, wryly, like the face of a discomforted child'. The use of oxymoron in the epiphany of the woman and the shocked man here show another division due to the different views and opinions upon the way of treating poor black people. Gordimer describes the people and the setting in the third-person but does show us the young woman's point of view on several occasions. For instance, in line 168-169 there is no subject ‘she' in the description of shame upon her. This emphasizes the guilty among some white people about the exploitation of the country and also made the reader feel empathetic towards the young woman. The ‘majestic' and ‘heraldic' lion was ‘fallen on its side in the corner' lead the main theme of the story – the richer and privileged white European arrive and exploit South Africa's labour and move on, they are never really part of the country as the train symbolizes. The central narrative question in ‘Leela's Friend' is ‘Did Sidda steal the gold chain? ‘ He is been prejudiced by Mr. and Mrs. Sivasanker for the missing chain of Leela just because he is the only one servant of the house. The story circles around the sense of hierarchy and honesty and directness of children. The sense of level is shown in the beginning of the story while ‘Mr Sivsanker was standing in the front veranda of his house. ‘ Also, verbs such as ‘send' and ‘keep' imply a pet imagery of Sidda and this highlights the class divisions among the servant and his master. Narayan use an irony in positioning him in the house: ‘she made him squat on the floor'. Even a 5-year-old child can decide to have Sidda stay and ‘command' him to do whatever you want. This imagery is more symbolized in line 79 and 80 where Leela is represented as ‘little princess' while Sidda is described as her ‘pet'. ‘He looked at her mutely, like an animal. ‘ This pet imagery is used by Narayan throughout the story. The golden chain, the running away, not permitting to sleep in the house all accentuate his level and hierarchy comparing to the owner of the house. He is prejudged as he is ‘already looked queer' when Mrs Sivasanker knows that the chain is missing. Even he has been proved that he has not taken the chain; Mr Sivasanker still calls him a ‘criminal'. All these ironies of prejudice show that the class division within this community and all the cause of this is that Sidda is in a position of servant and therefore loses his right. Both of the stories accentuate the unfairness and injustice upon the weak class as the result of class division and their poverty. ‘The train from Rhodesia' uses the woman's point of view and her epiphany to make the reader feel sympathetic towards the vendor. ‘Leela's Friend' uses the pet imagery to emphasize the idea of classes and prejudice on poors.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Globalization and Local/Regional Economy Essay

Globalization as defined by World Bank is the increasing integration of â€Å"economies and societies world wide† (â€Å"World Bank Group,† 2001). Globalization is also perceived as a process or a trend wherein economically speaking, the money flows in the international market unconstrained and capital is reorganized allowing a maximization of profit (Robinson, 2004, n. p). On the other hand, culturally speaking, globalization has the capacity to integrate, adopt, and influence diverse cultures and the power to remove cultural barriers (Rothkop, 1997, n. p). Considering the fact that globalization is crossing over geographical borders, such trend is greatly affecting local and regional affairs at the same time. Las Vegas, Nevada also known as â€Å"The Sin City† is the world’s entertainment capital (â€Å"Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority,† 2008). Also famous for its casinos and different recreational activities, the city caters to various people. According to the 2005 U. S. Census Bureau data, the total population of Las Vegas is 538,653 wherein 273,147 people 16 years and above are in the labor force (â€Å"Las Vegas Government,† 2007). This figure shows how financially advantageous it is to invest capital in Las Vegas and to establish business there. Aside from that, the same survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau shows that the population of Las Vegas is very diverse such that many people from all over the world resides or works there. There are Asians, Latin Americans, African Americans and Americans (â€Å"Las Vegas Government,† 2007). What is the significance of the city’s diverse cultural affiliates and its highly advantageous economic status? Taking the concept of globalization into consideration, noting the importance of Las Vegas’ society will be very beneficial for the domestic affairs and stability of the city. Las Vegas is filled with entertaining games and activities like casinos, amusement parks and bars. These can open opportunities for the city to promote its services to the global arena. As characterized by globalization, the flow of money towards Las Vegas will be unconstrained since many investors in the international market see a great advantage in placing their stocks in the businesses held in Las Vegas like in the hotels and casino gaming industry. Aside from the flow of money via the negotiations in the international market, the city also employs cash from the local market through their visitors and tourists availing their services. Through all these economic undertakings, the people in the local and regional areas of Las Vegas will really benefit since there is a high inflow of cash and greater socio-cultural development projects for the people. In relation to the socio-cultural implication of the services and some goods in Las Vegas, there is also the observable manifestation of globalization. As what was stated earlier, globalization includes overcoming territorial boundaries and crossing over. Statistics show that in Las Vegas, 19. 4% of the residents are also foreign language speakers aside from being English speakers (â€Å"Las Vegas Government,† 2007). This means that many of the people in Las Vegas are foreigners who also avail the goods and services in the city. Moreover, since there is a huge influx of Latin Americans in the U. S. , the said trend also spills-over in Las Vegas where many Latin Americans work in shops and also holds businesses there. Also, through Las Vegas’ theatre, arts, music, cuisine and other cultural undertakings, they are also able to transcend borders right at their very city where various performers and artists from around the world presents (â€Å"Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority,† 2008). It is observable from this analysis of Las Vegas’ cultural and economic affairs that globalization is, indeed, an international trend and is greatly affecting the local agenda of states. It is therefore important to not always be reminded of the influence of globalization when a state is creating their policies both in the economic and socio-cutural aspects. References Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority. (2008). Las Vegas. Retrieved May 6, 2008 from http://www. vegas. com/. Las Vegas Government. (2007). Facts and Statistics. Retrieved May 6, 2008 from http://www. lasvegasnevada. gov/. Robinson, W. (2005). A Theory of Global Capitalism. Maryland: John Hopkins University Press. Rothkop, D. (1997). In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture. Retrieved May 6, 2008 from www. globalpolicy. org/globaliz/cultural/globcult. htm. The World Bank Group. (2001). Globalization. Retrieved May 6, 2008 from htp://www1. worldbank. org/economicpolicy/globalization/.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Movie: The Birth of A Nation Essay

Tim Dirk’s review of The Birth of a Nation[1] is one of the most detailed and comprehensive reviews that has encompassed almost all the aspects of this masterpiece. This movie was made in 1915 by the producer/director D. W. Griffith. The story moves in the background of civil war affected America and are manifested in the form of lives of two families Stonemans and the Camerons. The pathos and miseries afflicted by the war are shown with close connection to key historical proceedings i.e. the growth and expansion of Civil War and the origin of the Ku Klux Klan.This film is also manifest   epitomize the historical justification for racial segregation. The movie tried to disperse the notions that Reconstruction was a disaster and African American can never be assimilated into white society. It further propagates the ideas that Ku Klux Klan emerged to restore the dominancy of whites in South that was at stake by uncontainable blacks. The film’s considerate depiction of whites lynching activities and emergence of Ku Klux Klan as messiah affirms the racial discriminations and notion of blaming the blacks for all evils in American society at that time. The Birth of a Nation further explores the two other themes related to post war era i.e. interracial sex and marriage, and the empowerment of blacks. Tim Dirk has analyzed all basic elements of the movie i.e. title, story, plot, narration, characterization, dialogue, motifs etc. Firstly, he takes into account the artistic and thematic aspects of the movies and then provides a brief synopsis of the story and at the end evaluates its technical merits. I agree with his overall verdict about the movies as â€Å"A controversial, explicitly racist, but landmark American film masterpiece† because despite its anti-black, it has introduced certain technical and artistic innovation for the first time in American cinema. Tom Dirk says that these innovations includes usage or ornamented title cards, the close-ups, the use of natural outdoors backgrounds, the wide-angle shot and panoramic long shorts. Director Griffith has further implied the amazing technique of parallels actions in a single sequence for example Gus’ endeavor to rape Flora and Ku Klux Klan salvage of Elsie and Margaret. He picturized the battle scenes in a way that hundreds of extras appeared as thousands. Dirk further pays homage to the work of Billy Bitzer, the cameraman of the movie who introduced the night cinematography with the help of Magnesium flares and the technical effects by camera iris i.e. expansion and contraction of camera’s circular masks. (Dirk, 2006) While analyzing the theme of the movie, he has rightly pointed out that Birth of A Nation is definitely one of the most significant contributions in nurturing cinema’s role as an art form. I concur with his stance The Birth of a Nation portrays some of the most chaotic and turbulent conflicts of American History. Dirk points out that the post civil-war period is picturised with colors of racial discrimination and African American are depicted as the cause of all socio-political and economic problems of the Reconstruction era. Dirk further takes into accounts set of components that must be taken into consideration while making a movie analysis. This set is known as MISE-EN-SCENE and includes Setting and sets, Acting style, costumes and lighting and asserts that in Birth of A Nation, ideological or symbolic information is conveyed through these particular setting. Overall, the review contains all the mandatory information about the story and provides an in-depth analysis of necessary paraphernalia of the movie. But it ignores the characterization by the author and its presentation by the actors and actresses. References Dirk, Tim. The Birth of A Nation (1915) Website: [1] Initially it was released and premiered with the title The Clansman in January, 1915 in California but later on the title was changed to Birth of A Nation.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Can the animal testing done to find cures for diseases be done Essay

Can the animal testing done to find cures for diseases be done humanely or is it by nature inhumane - Essay Example animal testing because much more relaxed standards on what a researcher could do to his animal were in place that allowed for very torturous acts to be undertaken in the name of science. It is extreme cases like that which prompt modern opposition to animal testing. However, research institutions much more tightly regulate live animal testing today in order to protect the interests of animals when they are being tested, and there is no reason to believe that animal testing cannot be conducted in a humane fashion. Animal testing endures a great number of regulations in order to protect the interests of animals. At Stanford University, scientists adhere to the Animal Welfare Act and must submit proposals for how they will use their animals in experimentation. This requires a researcher to think beforehand about the best way to use his animal resources to achieve his intended outcome, and this allows other scientists to criticize that method if it is cruel. Scientists also sit down to discuss concepts of cruelty and the appropriate use of animals in a laboratory (Stanford News Service). With grant money depending on these scientists’ abilities to understand and apply these concepts of humane treatment, there is a strong incentive to treat animals with a measure of respect they have not been given in centuries prior. The Canadian Council on Animal Care proposes additional practical ways in which animal tested can be conducted humanely, summarized as the â€Å"three R’s† (CCAC). The first â€Å"R† refers to â€Å"replacement,† or the preferred use of an inanimate system or model instead of a live animal model. Cell and tissue cultures are sometimes even better than a full-scale live animal model because there are fewer variables to consider. â€Å"Reduction† is the second â€Å"R,† which means decreasing the number of animals used in experimentation. This is a good scientific practice anyway, regarding the number of confounding genetic variables that may arise in a

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Monetary System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Monetary System - Essay Example In. order to compensate with the needs, they have to buy currencies which are more recognized in the world and with this, they need a larger volume of their monetary resources in which they will have to spend tremendous amount just to meet or purchase a certain currency. By doing so, the value of their currency will be more likely affected and it may cause sudden change of the prices of basic goods and commodities. To add to that, if they do have a lesser monetary value, that certain country might resort in money in some monetary agencies in both local and international. Having this practice will ease or lessen the burden of a certain country with regards to their monetary scheme. However, if that certain debt would not be paid off immediately or given proper attention, then it would be another factor in weakening the value of a certain currency. The concerned country will further focus in paying off their debts and with this it will also need tremendous amount of money in terms of p ayment of the principal as well as the interest. If the concerned party would pay for their debts, it will need tremendous amount of money and the inflation rate would also rise, as the value of their money would be further weakened. ... If this happens, the economy of that certain government would face stagnation in which their economy would rely on loans and debts made by the government. The question is, if there comes a time that this government would not be able to lend a new one, how would they be able to pay their obligations and deliver the needs of its constituents. Then, it would be more difficult for that government to establish the stability of its currency. With this, it would more likely to produce another inflation and will lead to another depreciation of the value of their currency. Also, this would also mean that they would fail to pay their current obligations and with this they not be entitled for future loans in some international monetary institutions and this would really mean a serious problem. During these stages, prices of basic commodities will rise as prices in producing goods with the use of electricity, manpower, raw materials and the likes would also have their own highs and this would re ally mean a serious problem for that certain country. If the cost of production were high, then the burden would also be passed to the consumer, which will affect the prices of goods. Prices of transportation, communication and some related industries would not be spared in encountering such a scenario. This would also mean that the workforce would demand for higher wages to compensate their daily needs in which sometimes lead to closure of the industries or field specialization that they are working. Without further production then there would be a little source of income for the country, there would be less tax payers, and will affect the revenue collection of the government. With this, the government would be pressured to sell

Lean Manufacturing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Lean Manufacturing - Research Paper Example In the past decade, rigorous approaches have been employed to eliminate insignificant expenditures in manufacturing. This trend has become global in scale evidenced by its adoption in British manufacturing from Japan’s car industry. The principles of lean focuses on minimizing costs induced from redundant tasks while directing the business to practices that adds value to the firm. However, it would not be good to expect maximum and lasting benefit from temporary implementation. These protocols are more on bringing about discipline, setting standards, improving cohesion across the business, providing everyone with a core ethos. It is of course significant that the system is well understood by the senior management who as expected must have a clear goal. Lean manufacturing practices are preferred in numerous manufacturing operations over traditional mass production techniques (Doolen and Hacker 2005). Contentions on lean practices arose as researchers argued that these practices are not as competitive and applicable to other operational environments, like those that prioritize considerations such as flexibility of volume, leadership in technology, speed in market and development of new products.. These researchers also identified alternative practices on operation (i.e. strategies that sustain supplemental capacity in the overall supply chain and has been observed to be advantageous). This, however, is in direct contradiction with the waste reduction philosophy of lean practices.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Effects Fast Food on Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Effects Fast Food on Society - Essay Example According to the essay findings fast food chains keep on introducing new and tastier items in their menus to keep their customers loyal to the brand. Fast food chains tend to spend hefty amounts on advertising and launching different campaigns. Advertising becomes an effective source of circulation of money in the society. Advertising may have its own adverse affects on the society but it has become a direct or indirect source of livelihood for many individuals, for example, digital display companies get more business, sports teams earn more money than before from the advertising budgets of fast food chains etc. This paper stresses that fast food chains tend to launch different campaigns for the children that might be based on latest movies, super heroes etc. Toys in the kiddy meals tend to attract the children even more. They have made kiddy meals so attractive and colorful that it gets difficult for children to stay away from them. This results in addiction for fast food and resistance to home cooked meals. Households also may demand more food away from home as their manager works longer hours outside the home. In particular, fast food may come to represent a convenient meal option, if such a restaurant is reasonably accessible. Spending for fast food has been shown to increase along with the number of hours worked by a household manager in the labor force. Full service restaurants tend to take longer periods of time in providing food, therefore fast food chains are preferred more.... Paragraph Households also may demand more food away from home as their manager works longer hours outside the home. In particular, fast food may come to represent a convenient meal option, if such a restaurant is reasonably accessible. Spending for fast food has been shown to increase along with the number of hours worked by a household manager in the labor force (e.g., Byrne et al., 1998). By contrast, dining at a full service restaurant can take as long as preparing, eating, and cleaning up after a meal at home. Thus, there is neither a clear theoretical nor empirical relationship between a household's demand for food at full-service restaurants and its time constraints. Paraphrasing The authors refer to a member of the house as the manager; this individual has been defined as a person who is responsible for preparing the food and other chores around the house. The increasing needs of the current times compel more people to work from one family, due to which the manager of the hous e may also be spending lot of time away from home. Due to the shortage of time, quick and convenient supply of food is desired by most families. Full service restaurants tend to take longer periods of time in providing food, therefore fast food chains are preferred more. Commentary This research finding is relevant for the research study since it addresses the prevailing trends of the modern life; people do not have time to prepare food at home therefore they prefer fast food. 2. Health Problems Source: Lin, Biing-Hwan, and Frazao, Elizabeth. â€Å"Away-From-Home Foods Increasingly Important to Quality of American Diet†, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999. Paragraph Earlier studies suggested that

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Inclusion and the Inclusive Learning Environment Essay - 2

Inclusion and the Inclusive Learning Environment - Essay Example also requires that the teacher involves recognizes that all learners are different in their own ways and therefore, what may look helpful and good for the attainment of goals for one learner may not necessarily be good for another learner. In seeking to understand the inclusive environment, it is also crucial to consider that each learner has something unique to add to the learning environment that can be of help to other learners. Students come from different background with varying upbringing. It is therefore crucial that a teacher is able to harmonize them to get them to live in peace and unity (Willis, 2009). An inclusive environment is also characterized by flexible approaches to the learning process (Willis, 2009). The world of education is very dynamic as it evolves each decade with new needs arising every time. It is therefore of great need it is reassessed each time and the necessary changes made. The changes can be attributed to the increasing educational opportunities across the globe. Consequently, it is of essential need, those teachers to be able to nurture the full potential of each student. By teachers being in a position to model inclusive learning attitudes in their students, they are able to learn and apply the strategies as they acknowledge their differences and have profound respect for diversity. Examples of strategies used in the inclusive environment are that regarding how teachers nod learners interact and relate to one another (Willis, 2009). This involves use of the respectful vocabularies and terminologies towards one another. Good communication strategies ensure that comments and views are not mistaken to be discriminatory. In addition to this, the body language should also be appropriate and decent at all times. Another strategy is that which involves, the kind of teaching resources the teacher employs (Willis, 2009). The resources ought to be suitable and compatible with all the learners’ needs. Let no learn feel sidelined or

Monday, September 9, 2019

Chinese Monetary and Exchange System Reform Dissertation

Chinese Monetary and Exchange System Reform - Dissertation Example There are many doubts over the government’s claims of effective capital controls and the proofs of â€Å"hot money† tell a very different story. The bigger openness of economy will certainly create an environment of tension with the China's closed capital account. The country must put in place a strong institutional framework and a solid financial infrastructure. These are very necessary measures for accommodating freedom of cross-border capital flows and can provide China chances of making meaningful progress in banking reform in the next three to five years. During the last two years, China’s currency current account surplus registered a rapid increase, showing an increase of 817 billion dollars (or 1.5 percent) of gross domestic product in 2001 to 46 billion (or 3.2 percent) of gross domestic product in 2003. Its currency remains depreciated by nearly all metrics. The country ran a trade surplus of 32 billion dollars in 2004 compared with a surplus of about 25.5 billion dollars in 2003. For two causes, however, the fundamental recent account surplus in the years 2003 and 2004 is merely about undoubtedly significantly higher than the calculated surplus. The first cause, the economy of the country has been growing fast, at a record-setting but clearly flawed pace. High growth has encouraged an unprecedented demand for imports, which showed a rise of 40 percent in 2003, making the country third largest importer of world. In 2004 imports registered an additional increase of 36 percent. cent. While China's economic growth ultimately slows to a more sustainable pace, it is quite likely that import growth will slow down relative to the growth of exports and in result trade surplus of the country will how wide gap. Amid 1990 that was the prototype in the final macroeconomic cycle when the trade accounts reinforced considerably. The second cause, mainly because of the peg of Chinese currency Yuan to the US dollar, the real trade-weighted value of the Chinese Yuan has