Saturday, August 31, 2019
First and foremost for any case study, the reader must first understand what they are researching and why. Penton Media, a publisher of business trade magazines such as Industry Week, Machine Design, and Restaurant Hospitality, was the subject of this particular case study. Upon reading the case study on Penton Media, the reader learns that Penton Media has made great progress in the growth of their company through a six year period, 1992-1998, based on the research results provided. Ken Long, Penton MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Director, stated in 1998 that there was a growing belief that Penton Media was generating fewer services than in the past. In 1992, Penton Media was reaching out to their readers by having them request product information through mail, which back then, that form of communication was acceptable. However, as time elapsed, technology and communication advanced. By 1998, Penton Media was providing information requests through e-mail and websites. In this case study, the research results provided two different years, 1992 and 1997. The years that elapsed from 1992 to 1997 proved that there was a growth in response and response selections to the advertisements Penton Media provided, in the business magazines they publicized for. From reading the case study the reader can build the management-research question hierarchy. The first thing to identify is the management dilemma, which in this case is: Will Penton Media experience lower advertising revenues, if alternate methods of inquiry stimulation are sought, since companies do not track the source of their leads? Secondly, defining the management question, which is: Are there publications or magazines that are generating fewer leads now as opposed to the past years? Next, the reader must ask the research question(s), which is: Should Penton Media continue to include reader service cards in the magazines they advertise for, for readers to request additional information on companies, which in turn enhances advertisement and business for the companies listed? If not, what are the alternative advertising methods that are more technologically advanced that could be applied to boost advertising revenues? Upon defining the research question(s), the investigative que stions need to be identified throughout the case study. For this case, the investigative questions are: What are the percentages of readers/subscribers using the reader service cards currently in comparison to the years past? If there is a declineÃ detected in the usage of reader cards, what are the alternative methods that they are using to contact businesses and companies? Is there any way to implement different strategic means of these methods to enhance advertising revenue? After identifying the investigative questions, the management questions are the next step on the management-research question hierarchy. The management questions for this case include: Will Penton Media experience a decline in revenue due to the alternate methods of advanced advertising technology of customer inquiry stimulation? Penton Media will need to make a management decision is the last step for the hierarchy. In this case, Penton Media will need to decide whether to terminate the use of reader service cards in the magazines they advertise and replace the advertisements with alternate methods of advanced technology advertising. If they do decide to implement a more strategic technologically advanced method of advertisement, the readers and subscribers will be able to directly contact businesses and companies they are interested in on a present and current time schedule. After reading this case study, there are some ethical issues that are relevant to it. The most vital ethical issue that is presented in this case is the right to privacy, or confidentiality. Upon reading the case and the forms that are included to be sent to the readers and subscribers questioned and polled, it is read within the cover letter for the survey that Ã¢â¬Å"All individual responses will remain completely confidential, with answers combined and presented in statistical form only.Ã¢â¬ At the end of the cover letter Penton Media asks the selected person for the survey to correct or make any necessary changes to their mailing address, to ensure they would be in the random drawing for the handheld color television. Having that information in the survey is proof that Penton Media is aware of who is responding to which questions, regardless of privacy and confidentiality. Based upon the results they received, out of 710 participants, Penton Media only analyzed 676 surveys. Penton claims the reasoning behind only analyzing 676 surveys was due to the fact that those participants were purchase decision makers for their organization. From there, Penton Media stated that the standard deviation of the survey results they received was four, with a ninety-five percent level of confidence. Out of the 676 surveys analyzed, Penton Media did an in depth follow-up with only fortyÃ participants. Given the information of how Penton Media conducted the entire survey process, it is possible there was more room for error than Penton anticipated. Penton MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s research team runs the risk of their data results and information being inaccurate since all of the participants that responded didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have their answers considered for the research. References Cooper, D., Schindler, P. (2001). Business Research Methods: Cases: Inquiring Minds Want to Know Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Now!.
Friday, August 30, 2019
NAME: ASHVIN JAYABALAN I. C. NUMBER: 970202-13-5163 AGE: 15 YEARS OLD ADDRESS: BLOCK 47, 0316, TAMAN UNGKU TUN AMINAH, 81300, SKUDAI, JOHOR BAHRU TELEPHONE NUMBER: 0168099798/0168508226 E-MAIL ADDRESS: [emailÃ protected] COM NAME OF SCHOOL: SMK TAMAN TUN AMINAH BE CAREFUL WHAT YOU WISH FOR Ã¢â¬Å"Be Careful What You Wish ForÃ¢â¬ . This is the phrases or topic that I am going to write an essay about it. First but not least I am going to explain the definition of the word wish. Wish means a feeling or to express a strong desire or hope for something that probably will not happen to us.We must not think that all of our dreams or wish will come true if there is nothing we do and rely on other people. On the contrary, we must also beware of what we wish for because sometimes it will come true and some we doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it. For example, we wish to become a popular and well-known person. Once we become famous, we will feel that something is missing which is love and happiness from your family or your loved ones that is far away from your place.From there we realized that what we wish is actually nothing and just to get close to the fans. So, we will regret and go back where we belong Everyone has their own wish and dream. Some of them wish that they could win over a jackpot million of ringgits or gambling in a casino. However, does this wish mean a lot for you or just to have fun. Actually my wish is to become a millionaire. Yes, although my dream is too big but I will help people in need such as old peoples, orphans and many more.I will help them by building a house for them to stay and as a shelter. This will makes them more comfortable to stay. I will also build a small school for urban poverty, child abandonment and abused child. They will have good education when they grows up and contribute to the country. Besides, I will distribute foods and drinks to the homeless in the street of Johor. This is because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been blessed so I want to bless other s. It can be as simple as giving a bag of rice or tinned food to someone out there who hungry.Every time I give I am answering another personÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer. As one says a great nation is not measured by the numbers of millionaires and billionaires, but the absence of the poor. There is a story that I want to tell about this topic. It is about a boy named Dexter. He lives with his parents in a small village at Perak. He is good in writing English essays. So, he went to America to continue his studies in essay writing. Then, he came back to his hometown in Perak and he wishes that he could become a great novelist.His wish came true and he was as happy as larks that he could become a popular novelist. Since then he had written many good novels especially one of his books entitled THE BEST FRIEND IÃ¢â¬â¢VE EVER HAD. This novel has received an award from the World Books Awards in London. Because of his novel, he had many fans and people whole around Asia. Now, he had become famous an d he forgets about his family and also his loved ones. One day, he met with an accident on his way back home from work.He was rushed to the nearest hospital by the help of the people on the scene. Once his family heard the news, they rushed to the hospital. They felt relieved that Dexter had only minor bruises on his body and had a broken leg. Once Dexter awake, he was shock to see his family visit him. He regret that he had forget about his family and promises that he would go back to his happy and harmony family again. There is also a song that related to this topic entitled HOME by Chris Daughtry.This song says that we must be careful of what we wish for because some of our wish can come true and some we doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want. He says again that he is not running from his family but he thinks that the places and faces are getting old. Besides, he thinks that love given by his fans is totally different with families love. In conclusion, we must know that every wish we ask for will h ave serious consequences later. So, we must think wisely before making any decisions because itÃ¢â¬â¢s no use to crying over a split milk. (733 words) Laughter Is the Best Medicine NAME: ASHVIN JAYABALAN I. C. NUMBER: 970202-13-5163 AGE: 15 YEARS OLD ADDRESS: BLOCK 47, 0316, TAMAN UNGKU TUN AMINAH, 81300, SKUDAI, JOHOR BAHRU TELEPHONE NUMBER: 0168099798/0168508226 E-MAIL ADDRESS: [emailÃ protected] COM NAME OF SCHOOL: SMK TAMAN TUN AMINAH BE CAREFUL WHAT YOU WISH FOR Ã¢â¬Å"Be Careful What You Wish ForÃ¢â¬ . This is the phrases or topic that I am going to write an essay about it. First but not least I am going to explain the definition of the word wish. Wish means a feeling or to express a strong desire or hope for something that probably will not happen to us.We must not think that all of our dreams or wish will come true if there is nothing we do and rely on other people. On the contrary, we must also beware of what we wish for because sometimes it will come true and some we doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it. For example, we wish to become a popular and well-known person. Once we become famous, we will feel that something is missing which is love and happiness from your family or your loved ones that is far away from your place.From there we realized that what we wish is actually nothing and just to get close to the fans. So, we will regret and go back where we belong Everyone has their own wish and dream. Some of them wish that they could win over a jackpot million of ringgits or gambling in a casino. However, does this wish mean a lot for you or just to have fun. Actually my wish is to become a millionaire. Yes, although my dream is too big but I will help people in need such as old peoples, orphans and many more.I will help them by building a house for them to stay and as a shelter. This will makes them more comfortable to stay. I will also build a small school for urban poverty, child abandonment and abused child. They will have good education when they grows up and contribute to the country. Besides, I will distribute foods and drinks to the homeless in the street of Johor. This is because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been blessed so I want to bless other s. It can be as simple as giving a bag of rice or tinned food to someone out there who hungry.Every time I give I am answering another personÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer. As one says a great nation is not measured by the numbers of millionaires and billionaires, but the absence of the poor. There is a story that I want to tell about this topic. It is about a boy named Dexter. He lives with his parents in a small village at Perak. He is good in writing English essays. So, he went to America to continue his studies in essay writing. Then, he came back to his hometown in Perak and he wishes that he could become a great novelist.His wish came true and he was as happy as larks that he could become a popular novelist. Since then he had written many good novels especially one of his books entitled THE BEST FRIEND IÃ¢â¬â¢VE EVER HAD. This novel has received an award from the World Books Awards in London. Because of his novel, he had many fans and people whole around Asia. Now, he had become famous an d he forgets about his family and also his loved ones. One day, he met with an accident on his way back home from work.He was rushed to the nearest hospital by the help of the people on the scene. Once his family heard the news, they rushed to the hospital. They felt relieved that Dexter had only minor bruises on his body and had a broken leg. Once Dexter awake, he was shock to see his family visit him. He regret that he had forget about his family and promises that he would go back to his happy and harmony family again. There is also a song that related to this topic entitled HOME by Chris Daughtry.This song says that we must be careful of what we wish for because some of our wish can come true and some we doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want. He says again that he is not running from his family but he thinks that the places and faces are getting old. Besides, he thinks that love given by his fans is totally different with families love. In conclusion, we must know that every wish we ask for will h ave serious consequences later. So, we must think wisely before making any decisions because itÃ¢â¬â¢s no use to crying over a split milk. (733 words)
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Evidence Ã¢â¬â information used by the auditor to draw conclusions on the fair presentation of the financial statements. Audit objectives suggest the types of evidence to accumulate. II. Decisions on evidence accumulation A. Which audit procedures to use. General Objectives: Six TRAOs Eight BRAOs Four PDAOs Accounting Cycles: Five Management Assertions Specific Objectives: At least: Six TRAOs Eight BRAOs Four PDAOs Audit Procedures: At least one and likely more for each specific TRAO, BRAO, PDAOs Audit procedures frequently Ã¢â¬Å"coverÃ¢â¬ more than one audit objective! Select a sample of sales invoices and trace to the shipping document agreeing name and quantity. Preparation Question: What is an audit procedure? B. What sample size to select for a given procedure. C. Which items to select from the population. D. When to perform the procedures (timing). III. Audit Program Preparation Question: What is an audit program? IV. Persuasiveness of evidence Which audit procedures: A. Appropriateness 1. Relevance Example: Trace from sales invoices in the Sales Journal to shipping documents. B. Reliability 1. Independence of provider Ã¢â¬â 2. Effectiveness of clientÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control structure (strong vs. weak) 3. AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s direct knowledge 4. Qualifications of provider 5. Objectivity What sample size and which items: C. Sufficient 1. Likelihood of misstatements 2. Quality of internal control When to perform D. Timeliness Other factors: E. Combined effect F. Cost 2 V. Type of Evidence Preparation question: Enter key words that define each of the types of evidence listed. Type Definition Grade 1. Physical examination 2. Confirmation 3. Documentation: External Internal Ã¢â¬â good Internal Ã¢â¬â bad 4. Analytical procedures: Tailored Broad 5. Inquiries of the client 6. Recalculation 7. Reperformance 8. Observation In-class exercise: Audit Procedure 1. Examine supporting documents for cash disbursements several days before and after year-end. 2. Examine the acquisitions and cash disbursements journals for the last few days of the current period and first few days of the succeeding period, looking for large or unusual transactions. 3. Trace from the general ledger trail balance and supporting documentation to determine whether accounts payable, related parties, and other related assets and liabilities are properly included on the financial statements. 4. For liabilities that are payable in a foreign currency, determine the exchange rate and check calculations. 5. Discuss with the bookkeeper whether any amounts included on the accounts payable list are due to related parties, debit balances, or notes payable. 6. Obtain vendorsÃ¢â¬â¢ statements from the controller and reconcile to the listing of accounts payable. 7. Obtain vendorsÃ¢â¬â¢ statements directly from vendors and reconcile to the listing of account payable. 8. Obtain a list of accounts payable. Re-add and compare with the general ledger. Type of Evidence BRAOs 3 Example of writing/creating audit procedures: Situation: The following depicts the document flow for sales for a typical company. Customer/ Sales Order Bill of Lading Sales Invoice Sales Journal General Ledger Financial Statements General Objective TRAO Ã¢â¬â Occurrence Specific Objective Audit Procedures TRAO Ã¢â¬â Completeness See Table 7-6 (p. 187) for good Ã¢â¬Å"buzzÃ¢â¬ words to use when constructing an audit procedure.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Energy saver - Research Paper Example Literature Review During the 2008 presidential election campaign green energy became an important issue as never before in presidential elections. Both the candidates strongly supported an economy which gave strong support for green energy over fossil energy. The difference lay in that John McCain favored the use of market-based approaches towards this objective Obama emphasized the use of governmental initiatives. (2). Thus progress towards greater use of green energy under the Obama administration would depend on the governmental initiatives put in place and the support levels and success of these initiatives. On Inauguration Day the keenness of the Obama administration can be seen in these words of the White House, Ã¢â¬Å"the energy challenges our country faces are seve3re and have gone unaddressed for a long time. Our addiction to foreign oil doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just undermine our national security and wreak havoc on our environment Ã¢â¬â it cripples our economy and strains the bud gets of working families all across America. President Obama and Vice President Biden have a comprehensive plan to invest in alternative and renewable energy, and end our addiction to foreign oil, address the global climate crisis and create millions of new jobs. (3, p.64). Words were translated into action by the Obama administration. ... (4). Towards this end the EPA was asked to look into CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s long standing request to set strict tailpipe emissions to restrict the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the Department of Transport to develop the regulations to enable the implementation of a 2007 law that required elevated fuel efficiency benchmarks for automobiles and light commercial vehicles by the year 2020. (3). Within the first month of assuming office the Obama administration got the economic stimulus bill passed by Congress. The bill though targeting the severe recession faced by the country, contained several important provisions towards the green energy and environment initiatives. $45 billion within the historic $787 billion bill was meant for energy efficiency, alternate energy programs ad tax breaks towards the use of green energy. $20 billion was set aside for the development of renewable energy power, while $18 billion was meant for environmental projects, and $2 billion towards R&D for ca rbon capture and storage. Tax cuts of up to $7,500 were also provided for those purchasing plug-in hybrid cars. (3). While these initial successes may point to the Obama administration succeeding in its drive towards growing dependence on green energy and lowering dependence on imported oil, the going has become tough, because of the bi-partisan politics involved in it. The Republican party as demonstrated by the John McCain is more oriented to market corrections to lead the way in energy dependence (2). This means that there will hardly any support from the party towards the policy and actions of the Obama administration for increasing use of green energy through government action. This will
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Debt crisis in europe - Essay Example In October 2009, the beginning of the global financial crisis in addition to Greece public debt admittance, glimmered shock throughout global markets as the full extent of Euro zone debt levels occurred (3). This paper will analyze the causes of this debt crisis, possibility of its persistence, its implications as well as some mitigation measures to curb the crisis. In May 2010, Greece became the first EU country to get assistance from EU and the IMF worth 110billion Euros. Some of the Greece greatest matters that have continuously led to debt crisis have been its high level of public debts and its augmented budget shortfalls. In the year 2001, Greece already had a public debt beyond 100% of GDP, when it was joining the Euro. The adoption of the euro currency facilitated more approving terms for the refinancing of government debt, and the augmented GDP growth. However, Greece faced certain limitations, for instance impossibility to diminish the currency due to being members of the euro zone, and the lack of aggressiveness of its economy partially because of over hiring and overpayment in the public domain (Minescu, 99). In Italy, the global recession tightly shook trade activities, credit as well as trade confidence. The global decrease in demand reduced ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales overseas, constricting ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s private expenditure and productivity. In addition, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s joblessness rate persists to be the lowest amongst EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s debt-ridden nations. However, terror of adverse market reactions has restricted ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to use economic policy to encourage its economy. By the year 2010, the general public debt increased to approximately 116.7% of GDP (Sandoval et al, 7). In Ireland, the global financial crisis hit the country in a very different way from the other affected countries. In Ireland, there was no compound plagiarism or the shadow banking systems. In the past decade, Ireland became a country of property developers and that is the only
Monday, August 26, 2019
How African-Americans have put an end of segregation, discrimination, isolation to attain civil rights and equity - Research Paper Example How African-Americans have put an end of segregation, discrimination, isolation to attain civil rights and equity? African Americans transformed their ways of viewing. They decided to cooperate fully in nation building because they knew that they had a duty to play in their nation for them to be considered patriots. They worked hard in school in order to be employed in large companies by the whites and not to be considered irresponsible people to their nations. These helped to improve their situation, as well as, improved their health standards since many people who had decent jobs were relocated to live in lavished houses. Africans remained loyal to the white land owners despite the intimidation and racial discrimination. African Americans were faced with many incidences of violation and intimidation. With this, they sought ways to object and make their wants voiced out. Black Africans formed and supported organizations that dealt with racial issues such as the NAACP, which refers to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, which was spearheaded by W.E.B Dubois. Initially in America, women were demeaned and had no control over their husbands, they were subjected to household chores and nurturing children. This took place mainly in the 19th century. This barbaric act came to an end when a woman by the name Chelly Dawance came out protesting against this inhuman act on women, and advocating together with the likes of Kate Chopins and Charlote Pekinns Gilman. For example, in the book written by Kate Pekinns that is narrating her marriage to a black man. She speaks of denied freedom of expression in her house. After their successful strike against stereotyping of women to promote equality between husbands and their wives in marriages, balance was achieved because the people realized that both parents had a collective responsibility in the family planning and in building their country (Meyer, 2001 P. 77). Through this equality, women became entrepreneurs and engaged in trade reducing the high number of people leaving in poverty, therefore, reduci ng the high death rates in youth and old age who usually succumb to illnesses such as malnutrition. Abolishment of slavery, segregation and racism For decades, African Americans fought for their rights because all through they had been subjected to cruel treatment by the whites. Men, women and their families were taken from Africa and brutally chained while ferried to America to work on plantations for years. Jim Crow laws that were enacted between 1876 and 1968 that mandated racial segregation undermined the status of blacks. This demonstrated what they were undergoing by deny of access to many things, which were supposed to be shared by people equally irrespective of the race or colour (Thurber, 2009 P. 93). The Jim Crow originated in the nineteenth century minstrel show song. Step by step, these acts came to be implemented, and the people who subjected African Americans
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Database Management - Research Paper Example The fact that decision making administrators are ready to adopt and deploy better options but having problems of finding the trained professionals for the job. As technology grows, data is generated and collected at a much faster rate. However, its management has always been an arduous process and has never kept up the pace. Therefore, new methods of searching, sorting, and storing huge raw data in a more meaningful way are needed. Storage is cheap but its chances of repeated utilization make it more valuable than the rest of the saved information. Businesses and companies are more worried about storing the Ã¢â¬ËBad DataÃ¢â¬â¢ and thus allocating more money to ensure data quality and its consistency in the long term. What makes data too much or too little and declaring its size just right can not be defined. Keeping data for an indefinite period does not necessarily mean that it is useless. What is more important is the data warehousing techniques. Data extraction, cleansing, dat a duplication and overlapping may reduce the load on the database technology in place. At the enterprise level, people are spending more money for data management and its protection.
Dreyfus Affair - Case Study Example The Dreyfus Affair was able to generate major impact on the French Jewry activities; the affair had deep impact on the Jewish people, and is responsible for the introduction of drastic changes in the approach, understanding, behavior, aptitude and lifestyle of the Jewish community. The ambition behind the achievement of the success was to make the French Jewry realize that it was a legitimate and non-offensive practice to portray as Jew in another to support the associates of other community. The researchers have proved that the modern French Jewish organizations have their association with the central group of people who were staunch supporters of Dreyfus. 'The Affair rapidly became a matter of opinion, a polemical debate, dominated by a class consciousness' (Forth, 2006). It proved that the injustice done to the individuals went reported, and was extremely blatant, offensive and immoral. The political implications of the Dreyfus Affairs has been that it was responsible for the change of government, and the newly formed government ceased their activities and restricted their involvement in 'military, clerical and extreme nationalist coalition in the Dreyfus Affair, a law separating Church and State'. The Affair was responsible for the development of Anti-Semi tism, such forces took over the stage and the individuals did not acknowledge the provisions for the equal status of Jews, and protested against their freedom and provisions for human rights in their favor, the group of individuals was driven by 'those driven by a vengeful patriotism' (George, 1899). 'Moreover, the anti-Semitism took on its contemporary form; the group highlighted the linkages and affiliation of the Jews with finance, and international power. The first signs of Vichy France could already be detected, both in the anti- Semitic press and such movements were responsible for the union of the people who shared supported and were believer of anti-Jewish stance. They simply required official status. In this sense, the Dreyfus Affair can be considered to be the precursor of a twentieth century which would be even darker for the Jews' (Forth, 2006). The emancipation of Jews was visible; therefore the event is regarded as the source for the revelation of Jew's precariousness. 'First and foremost, it proved that assimilation was simply an illusion which had lasted one century', the idea was concluded and supported by the Bernard Lazare , who is considered to be the greatest protagonists of assimilation. It was realized that anti-Semitism is a permanent phenomenon, 'and that the only salvation for the Jews lay in a national solution'. Herzl, another advocate of assimilation, forwarded that the affair was responsible for awakened 'an old dream of the Jewish people, sparking off what was to be the greatest revolution in modern Judaism: Zionism'. 'The Dreyfus Affair was therefore initiator of two events i.e. the Shoah and Zionism, both the events were responsible for the transformation of the Jewish society and believers in terms of their demographic, geographic, and cultural affiliations and linkages. The Dreyfus Affair influenced and changed the future of Jewish people. The issue received due focus and attention of the local population, and concerns were e xpressed by the International government. The Affair 'acquired a polemical nature dominated by a class consciousness' (Littman, 2005). The Dreyfus
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Management - Essay Example The management theory acts as the frame work for running the business. It is essential in dealing with employees, and in understanding the business environment(Robbins et al.2008). History of management As indicated by Robbins et al. (2008, p. 29), the ancient management practices were implemented in projects such as the construction of the Great Wall of Chinaas well as the pyramids of Egypt which employed thousands of people. During the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, a single pyramid would employ more the 100000 workers for 20 years; hence, someone had to be assigned the task of organizing and controlling the people and the materials to be used. Such activities led to the study of management practices. Robbins et al. (2008, p. 29) further stated that, in 1776, Adam Smith published a book that argued the economic benefits that organizations get from practicing effective management practices such as division of labour and breaking down jobs to narrow tasks, which played a role in increasing the labor productivity, and in enhancing the skills of the workers. The other concept that has played a role in management is the industrial revolution of the18th century in the Great Britain. Industrial revolution was important because it enhanced the use of machinery for production instead of manpower. This made the production of goods more efficient by reducing the finance and time resources used for production. The tasks that were previously taken by human beings were substituted by machines which enhance both accuracy and quality. In the 19th century, there was a major step taken to enhance proper management through the development of formalized management theories which were implemented in large organizations. These were scientific management, general administrative theory, quantitative organizational behavior and contingency. The scientific management theory explains the use of scientific methods to ensure that various tasks are implemented. The scientific theo ry was further enhanced by Fredrick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Taylor observed that most tasks were executed with neither application of skills nor professional standards; thus, reducing their output to a third of what was expected from a worker. To maximize the application of skills by the workers and increase the production efficiency, workers were assigned tasks according to their abilities and characteristics. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth studied on ways to avoid wastage of the body movements. The study was implemented through the selection of the right tools for the right job so as to optimize work performance. The experiments for this study were done through bricklaying, and by reducing the motions from 18 to 2, a move which proved to be more productive. The four principles of management developed by Taylor were; developing professional techniques for each component of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s work, selecting and training the employees, cooperation with the employees and dividing the responsibilities amongst the management and employees (Robbins et al.2008). The general administrative theorywas developed by Henri Fayol, in an effort to enhance effective management practices by educating managers on ways to execute their tasks and in return achieve positive results. FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s idea was based on creating a suitable working environment and controlling workers to achieve higher productivity. This approach is applicable in any organizational setting. This concept is important in determining
Friday, August 23, 2019
The Role of Loyalty Scheme In Selling Directly to the Customer - Research Paper Example 3. Identifying the other marketing tools that can be used as alternatives of loyalty schemes and comparing the effectiveness of them. Answers of the three major research questions are likely to meet the above mentioned objectives to a great extent. The entire research process including the search for literature and collection of primary data will be carried out keeping these three questions and objectives in mind. Literature Review Literature review will be the backbone of this research. It will be containing the theoretical aspects of the subject. The focus of this section will be on the main theories behind the emergence of loyalty programs. The literature regarding the history and background of several of such programs will be properly identified and explained in this section. The section will also include the description regarding the way in which consumer behavior is influenced by the loyalty schemes. A preliminary study shows that the loyalty schemes have been very effective du ring the last two-three years especially during the period of recession (Marketing Clout, 2010). They have helped the organizations in retaining their key customers and thereby improving the brand equity. Over the past decade retail industry in UK has become more competitive. Major players now, look for innovative strategies regarding relationship marketing for increasing their sales and maintaining the existing customer base (Stone, M. et al. 2003). Loyalty schemes are actually the result of intense competition among the retailers. This research will try to find out the theoretical aspect behind such outcomes. Furthermore, many consider loyalty schemes as the tool of direct marketing or relationship marketing. Literature... Literature review will be the backbone of this research. It will be containing the theoretical aspects of the subject. The focus of this section will be on the main theories behind the emergence of loyalty programs. The literature regarding the history and background of several of such programs will be properly identified and explained in this section. The section will also include the description regarding the way in which consumer behavior is influenced by the loyalty schemes. The author of the paper declares that the relationship between the brand image and loyalty schemes will be explained in the literature review section. The data required regarding the literature will be collected from various secondary sources like books, journal articles and research papers that are prepared in the past. Both physical and online libraries will be used for accessing these sources. Considering the nature of the data, qualitative analysis will be conducted. This research proposal is developed with the objective of providing a clear overview regarding the actual research that will be carried out very soon. Three major research questions along with the objectives are properly defined in this proposal. The literature searching process in the actual research will involve secondary research. Literatures regarding loyalty schemes and related aspects of marketing and branding will be mainly searched from various books and journals. Focus group interview will be conducted for gathering the primary data.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Romanticism and Transcendentalism Essay 1. After reviewing the Romanticism resource page, list three characteristics of Romanticism. Also, identify three authors of the Romantic period. * Three characteristics of Romanticism are appreciation of nature, idealism and nationalism. Three authors of the Romantic Era: Edgar Allan Poe, William Cullen Bryant and Lord Byron. 2. Using the Transcendentalism resource page, list three characteristics of Transcendentalism * Three characteristic of Transcendentalism are nature, intuition and the thought of God being a part of nature. 3. How did Transcendentalists feel about nature? What did Transcendentalists feel about the inherent nature of human beings (were humans inherently good or evil)? * Transcendentalists had much respect for nature and believed in the best and goodness of humans. 4. Describe two specific things Thoreau learned about life by translating the lines below in your own words: I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I wanted to live deeply and suck out all the marrow of life. (Walden) * Walden wanted to learn more about life in order to understand it completely by living it. I think Walden got to comprehend that some things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t necessary in order to live happy and in the right way. He realized that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what life was, until he was to experience things himself. 5. Which two great passive resistance leaders were influenced by the premise of Transcendentalism through the works of Thoreau and Emerson? *
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Knauf Corporation Case Study The following assignment is a case study, in which we are going to analyze the Knauf Corporation worldwide, but mostly the operation of the business in the European countries. The objective of this assignment is, by analyzing the operation of the company inside Europe to be able then to recognize, whether we see a common strategy or if there are any differences on it. In the first part, there is a research about the organizational function and the activities of Knauf worldwide and mainly in the European environment, starting from the past until the year 2009, where you can see the latest actions of the company. In the second part I will concentrate my analysis regarding how the general strategy of the company is differentiated depending on the local requirements, laws, cultures, market potentials, etc. In the end of the assignment we will make an analysis of the Greek market in order a close idea about the business operation. 1. Companys history and profile Knauf Group is a multinational producer of building materials and construction systems based in Germany, in Iphofen, where the head quarters and the master plan are located. In Iphofen exists also the historical museum of the company. Knauf is a family name. The Company began its operations in 1932, when the brothers Dr. Alfons N. Knauf and Karl Knauf established the firm Gebr. Knauf. It was a difficult beginning and at this time, no one could have thought the future big development of the company. Knauf finally became a multinational producer of building materials and construction systems, operating with more than 150 production facilities worldwide. Today the company ranks among one of the worlds leading manufacturers of building materials. Knauf has a workforce of 22,000 employees in 40 countries and in 2009 the company achieved sales of 5, 5 billion Euros. The product portfolio varies from the traditional plasterboard to the production of conveying machinery for construction site logistics, including the segments of gypsum plasters for interior and exterior use, insulation materials made of glass fibers or expanded polystyrene. The wide-ranging assortment also includes some other very special products as gypsum fiber boards for walls and floors, as well as a variety of special ceiling systems. The final aim, which comes out from this wide range of products, is that Knauf Group always focuses its efforts in being the leader producer in the construction sector by fulfilling any requirement of the architects, planners, building developers, etc. A strong characteristic of Knauf is the continuous courage for visions, innovation and investments as well as simple decision-making processes and a wealth of ideas on the part of its personnel. Despite the fact that the company is so large the CEOs of the company Nicolaus and Baldwin Knauf insist that the company is a family business, since it is still managed worldwide by the second and third generation of the family Knauf. The company doesnt belong in any stock market and every investment is created by their own profits without loans from the bank or any other external fund. 2. Companys structure and operation Gypsum plasters (core selling material of the company) The Group started to go international as early as the beginning of the Seventies of the last century and the trend has continued until today. Today the Group produces and sells its products in all European countries. In the developed countries such as E.E. countries, Turkey, Russia etc., the company has production facilities. According to the market demand in some occasions there are two or even three plants, whereas in small countries as Cyprus for example, there is only a local branch and the market is supplied with materials from Knauf Greece. Furthermore, there are factories located in North and South America, in the CIS states, in Northern Africa, in China and in Indonesia. Insulation materials Whereas in earlier times the sectors of dry construction and here we mention plasterboard as the primary product and gypsum plasters were the traditional areas of activity of the Group, meanwhile the insulation materials segment has developed into a further mainstay of the Group. The foundation stone for this was laid in 1978 when a glass fibre manufacturing company in Shelbyville, USA, was taken over. Today the company bears the name Knauf Insulation USA and operates a total of four production sites in the United States. The production of insulating materials on the basis of glass wool and mineral wool becomes more and more important. For about 30 years, the company has gained experience in the production of glass wool in North America. Within the last 5 years, Knauf has acquired 10 glass wool and mineral wool factories throughout Europe and additionally built new plants in Eastern Europe and Russia. Emerging and acquisitions activities Focusing before some years in the developing strategy into further segments of construction, where Knauf didnt have experience, the Company needed the knowledge and the facilities of existed companies well known for their quality in their field. Some of them were bought from the group in order to serve all the local Knauf companies with the special products that theyre producing. Some of the companies that have been bought and managed now from the group are AMF, Danogips, Marmorit, Sacret, Richter Systems, Knauf Perlite, Knauf PFT, Knauf Alutop. EUROPAK3 Most of these companies are selling their products only via local Knauf businesses. The interesting point is that the group doesnt hesitate to change its policy according to the target groups, different distribution channels and market needs. Being more specific, for example AMF Company is operating as a different business in the local markets, who sells products to the local Knauf businesses, but also to several wholesalers for example. PFT Company, which is occupied in machinery equipment (totally different market segment), is also developing separately from the local Knauf businesses in the European markets in order to serve other distribution channels and target groups. Knauf insulation, which is a totally different company is as well acting separately in the markets and sell its products directly to wholesalers without local Knaufs help. In many occasions in the European countries they are also selling only via local Knauf businesses. An interesting history is about a merging that the group has made with its one of the biggest competitors. The company USG is the market leader in United States producing and selling the same range of materials. United States of America is too much mature market in constructing with dry wall systems. Knauf group realized a big gap before some years in their product variety. They didnt have a board suitable for exterior constructions. Then the idea came from USG that had been producing a cement board, which is the ideal product, if someone wants to construct exterior walls facades for example. Then Knauf group in order to gain the technical knowledge and experience in cement board market, has been cooperated with USG. They have created together a joint ventured company under the name Knauf USG Systems, which is an independent company located in Germany and its aim is to produce and sell cement boards in Europe, Middle East, and Africa but only via the local Knauf businesses. 3. Organizational structure Knauf local businesses are managed by CEOs that usually are locals. The Local CEOs are supervised by the regional CEOs who are usually coming from the Knauf family. The local CEOs are fully responsible for the local organizational structure. Usually there is the plant manager, a logistics manager, sales and marketing managers, IT managers, technical department and sales department. Depending on how big the market is, sometimes as in Greece for example the technical department is merged with the sales department, which is finally consisted from sales engineers. 4. Vision and Mission The Knauf vision stems from the model on which the company is based: From a family company to a family of companiesÃ [i]Ã . Knaufs mission is to remain a family which will always include its employees, customers and consumers. The company mainly emphasizes its philosophy on the following: Sustainability, Ecology and economy. The company produces economic construction systems based on raw materials that come straight from the earth and are completely friendly to people and the environment. Plan innovations to meet tomorrows requirements. To be the market leader in the building materials industry Focusing in long term growth and continuous increase of companys value To be as good as the sum of its total employees. The company depends on its employees skills, efficiency and creativity. In that sense production plants are designed to be pleasant to work in, efficient and to ensure a conscientious approach to resources and the environment. Quality management is a key factor for the group 5. Knauf Business and Marketing Strategy model 5,1 DISTRIBUTION Knaufs general strategy is to sell their products only via wholesalers. These dealers can then sell products further to second hand dealers, contraction companies and technicians (Knauf system installers). This model can be changed if a local market is used to work with another way, as for example in Northern Africa countries. In Europe this strategy is generally followed. 5, 2 TARGET GROUPS If we follow the whole chain of construction industry, we all know that Architects are planning the projects which means, that theyre specifying materials (they create the demand). This means that they are the main decision makers in the construction chain. Contractors are taking over to complete the project, and the technicians as sub contractors they are installing Knauf systems. As you can easily realize, Knauf target groups are all the above mentioned groups. Companys concept, is to follow the projects from the early start of the planning until the final procurement. And that means, that they support all the phases of the construction by being present and service with technical support all the groups referred. In addition they focus a lot to the individuals (private investors). Individuals are Knaufs long term objectives, since they strongly believe that they are at the end of the day the basic mean of continuously adding value in the company and make their products even better known to the market. This sector is going to empower the already famous Knauf brand in the market, and of course the materials demand. 5, 3 COMMUNICATION PR ADVERTISEMENT In this paragraph, Im going to show you a small part of the general ideas regarding the companys marketing approach. Knauf in Europe proceeds in specific advertising actions to introduce its products variety in its all target groups. This marketing approach operates since the start of the company and it is already very successful. A very important thing in business is to follow up your customers. Thus, Knauf via its CRM system saves its contacts and post them direct mails. In addition they are also sending e-direct mails, as is the Knauf monthly newsletter or any other subject they would like to promote. Moreover, theyre participating in exhibitions which are usually taking place in the construction concept with target groups from architecture, planning, decoration, etc. Another way of advertizing is by creating inputs in magazines for architects, contractors and technicians. Except of magazines, they also make inputs in newspapers and daily free presses, so they could be able to approach also the individuals. TV spots, radio spots are as well important ways of advertising their systems. Knauf invests a part of each turnover to offer free advertising gifts to its customers. These gifts might be templates, banners, signs, flags, samples, vehicles and memorial gifts, all having as design the Knauf logos and the Knauf partner s logos as well. Local technical documentation and web sites are other ways to find information for the companys products. These documents are very well developed and they obviously offer an assured technical support to the customers. The corporation invests a lot in education regarding its systems installation. Every local business has its own training center where seminars are taking place in certain dates every year. Those who have participated in the seminars are taking in the end a Knauf graduate clarification that writes Mr Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ has successfully participated in the Knauf seminars the datesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ And this small thing makes them feel that they belong in a special group. Consequently they spread this idea to other people. 5.4 POSITIONING Knauf continues to increase a premium brand and separate its position against competition. Thats why the corporation always invests in developing new products and improving the old ones. 6. Gypsum Industry Market Analysis Europe The gypsum industry belongs into the broader industry of building materials. For the scope of our assignment we will only analyze the gypsum industry and especially the European Gypsum Industry as Knauf is mainly active into the European market. The European Gypsum Industry is characterized as a growing industry in comparison with the US or Australian Gypsum Industries which are already in the maturity face of their life cycles. With a turnover of over 10 billion Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬, the European gypsum and anhydrite industry operates 160 quarries and some 200 factories and generates employment directly to 28.000 people and indirectly for 85.000 people. It is one of the few fully integrated industries within the construction products field. Thirty years ago, the Gypsum Industry was made up of many small manufacturing enterprises mainly producing building plaster and stucco for local markets. The emergence and growth of the plasterboard and the plasterboard solutions market in the 1980s requiring high capital investments, equipment, RD and securing access to natural resources led to a consolidation process within the European Gypsum industry. Currently in the industry nowadays three main operators cover 80% of the gypsum product marketÃ [ii]Ã . These are Knauf Group of Companies, BPB (British Pasterboards) and Lafarge. BPB, a UK based manufacturer, acquired by Saint Gobain in 2005 and organized within the Saint-Gobains Construction Products SectorÃ [iii]Ã and Lafarge, the well known building material manufacturer, established in 1833 in France initially as a limestone mining companyÃ [iv]Ã . 6.1 PEST Analysis In analyzing the macro-environment via a PEST analysis, we can configure the environment which gypsum industry producers compete and identify the factors that might in turn affect a number of vital variables that are likely to influence the organizations supply and demand levels and its costs. The European building material industry is not that vulnerable to Political issues but into the Greek Construction Industry political issues arise more frequently as the support from the European Union funds have major role into Construction Industry growth rates. From 2001 till 2009 where more and more privately funded big real-estate projects were implemented the industry was growing very fast but the economic pressure that affects, for the last year, all companies and investors involved is slowing down the rates of the industry. In such critical times, most governments are identifying its policies with social and environmental care policies. Into the construction environment there is the need, more than any other time, of energy efficient buildings and construction techniques that exploit those advantages, and governments in assessing the socioeconomic impact of energy spending reduction are already subsidizing such constructions through government or EU fund raising. Technology i tself was always the main concern of producers in order to find ways of reducing their production cost as well as to invest in new RD fields, such as antiseismic technology, for exploiting the unique advantages of gypsum. 6.2 SWOT analysis European Gypsum Industry is a growing one and most European countries only now capitalize the advantages that gypsum offers as a building material. Gypsum is virtually indispensable for the interiors of homes and offices and all types of building where people congregate, such as schools, shops, airports, etc. Its superior performance in providing everyday comfort, in fire resistance and in insulation, heralds an ever greater role for it in buildings of the future. In fact, the safety and protection of people and property against fire, and effective thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings depends, more often than not, on the unique properties of gypsum. And many of the attractive features of the modern interior would be impossible without the versatility of gypsum as a building material. The gypsum wallboard industry is highly competitive. Because wallboard is expensive to transport, does not travel well in large quantities and lacks of product differentiation, producers compete on a regional basis, primarily based on price, product range, product quality, and customer service. The sector is highly competitive especially in Europe and North America with production mostly concentrated among few international players. The drywall solutions are seen in growing countries as a substitute for traditional construction solution like for example cement and brick and block constructions. The unique advantages that systems offered to the engineers made them a huge threat of substitute for the traditional techniques. But, soon the industry will be into the maturity face and new innovative and evolution building materials like magnesium or perlite have already started to threaten gypsums raising empire. The industry has to invest into new materials, new technologies and diversify towards innovative building material and construction system solutions. The capital investment that is required in order to enter into the gypsum industry is high. Equipment is expensive, know how is difficult to acquire, access to natural resources is prohibited and investment in RD is mandatory. That is why in very few years the European Gypsum Industry from the state of many locally situated small producers it transformed into an extremely concentrated market where three companies cover approximately 80% of the market. In global level the same concentrated situation is observed where 81% of the market is covered by 7 players (Georgia Pacific, Knauf, Lafarge, National Gypsum, Saint-Gobain, USG and Yoshino) The Gypsum Industry covers the whole life-cycle of the product. Indeed, the companies which extract the mineral gypsum also process it and manufacture the value-added products and systems. The full integration that characterizes the industry is a fact that removes any danger of suppliers bargaining power but at the same time it leads to higher production costs for the producer. The ownership of the gypsum reserves is a power game between the main competitors of the industry as it is at the same time a main clue of product differentiation and product quality resulting from the mineral gypsum purity. Gypsum reserves are now rare around Europe and that turned the producers to invent new technologies by producing synthetic gypsum mainly from fly ash which is a byproduct of energy production plants. The industry is mainly selling through an extensive dealers network in each country. Those dealers are commercial companies selling a series of building materials either to contractors or consumers. In Western Europe more mature markets dealership is also concentrated into few very big companies (Praktiker, Leroy Marlene, OBI etc) which due to its size and concentration they have already obtained a big bargaining power over the producers. Into the Greek market the dealers network is still based on small, unorganized depots with no special power over the industry but big retailers are already into the market and soon the situation will change. 7. Key Success Factors of the Gypsum Industry The following factors have played a major role in a gypsum companys prosperity: Cost advantages and economy of scale: The recent trend of acquisitions and mergers exploit potential cost advantages to be found in RD facilities serving global operations. They create larger and more diversified market focused organizations. All the top performing companies in the industry have faced, at least once, a major merger in the past. In 2005, BPB, one of the top 3 companies of the industry in Europe, was acquired by Saint Gobain which invested 5.9 billion Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬, for setting itself a step ahead from its major competitors in the building materials industry. Access to natural resources: As previously noticed, the Gypsum Industry covers the whole life-cycle of the product and producers strive for securing reserves all over the world. In that industry, due to the cost structure, privileged access to the raw material is vital for the companys growth. For that reason, companies started investing either in finding new ways of composing synthetic gypsum from several sources (e.g. energy plant waste) or by implementing systems for recycling their the products at the end of their life cycle (demolition waste). Differentiation through technical specifications and customer service quality: The main target for all producers is to offer a complete solution with their systems of products in order for engineers to be able to substitute traditional ways of building. They managed to specify with standard norms the use of the plasterboard walls, ceilings, floor or any other use as well as their technical characteristics like fireproof, sound insulation, thermal insulation etc. With the combination of professional sales and technical support as companies are using only engineers for sales reps with extensive and professional training, in order to serve customers and specify the systems in a market that is constantly gaining market share from the traditional construction methods. 8. Greek market analysis As we previously noticed, into the Greek market there is also one competitor to Knauf, Rigips Hellas (BPB) with one production site situated in West Greece. Both companies have their own reserves of the raw material close to their factories which are both situated into the same geographical area resulting to equivalent quality levels of raw material. A main difference is the production capacities as well as the plants sizes. Knauf operates a plant that was build from scratch in 1991 in Amfilochia, while on the other hand Rigips acquired some years after Knaufs establishment in Greece an old gypsum factory from a local producer. That explains the estimated difference in local production capacities for the two producers. Having the appropriate capacity levels, Knauf can control its production cost and overheads better than the competitors and therefore result to higher margin levels. Knauf from 1991 invested a lot of money for differentiating through technical specifications and customer service quality. In order to achieve that high level engineers were recruited and were extensively trained into Germanys headquarters. The experience and professionalism of the mother company was soon transferred into the Greek subsidiary and the company culture was quickly transformed according to the following: The future lies in the hands of talented and highly motivated employees. An important aspect is the family culture which prevails in the company: Learn from one another, hold together, pass on knowledge, assume the role of mentor, take fast and direct paths and press for special achievementsÃ [v]Ã . In very few years, almost 10 professional engineers were covering all the Greek territory offering technical support to contractors, extensive training to installers and professional customer service to retailers. Rigips which was established a few years later used same techniques for expanding into the Greek territory but always by following Knaufs steps. That was something that reduces its cost for training the market into new building materials but cost them the reputation of the leader in the market. Knauf was and still is characterized as the leader industry in the gypsum market in Greece. Their competitive advantage in the market is the ability of its people to open the market, train the customers and lead to a new age in construction industry. All the above are mainly achieved by the following: A huge database of active engineers is informed once every month by direct mail regarding new and innovative solutions. Over 7.000 installers are trained for efficient installing drywall systems into Knaufs Training Centre in Amfilochia. Retailers are supported by professional sales engineer all over Greece. Finally, Knauf has invest a lot in marketing by extensive advertising into press, technical magazines, radio and TV, by providing signs to all its retailing network and by participating into all main fairs in Greece. Rigips havent tried to differentiate significantly from Knauf into the market. They have not invest as much as Knauf into penetrating and training the market and their main position in the market is to let the leader open the way and then to follow. The main differentiation point for the two companies was the price. Knauf is the leader and for that the customer has to pay a premium. 9. Strategic recommendations Conclusion As we saw in this assignment Knauf Corporation is developing in Europe with a certain way which is driven by the values, the culture, the ethics and the historical success model, that the family developed for their business. However, we also saw that several differences exist, depending on the needs and the culture of the local markets. Such differences for example could be the style of the management, the variety of products, the developing of the other corporate businesses and so on. Knauf family believes a lot in the different local adaptation of their business model and this is visibly proven from their willing and trust to choose local people as general managers to run the business in the countries. They invest a lot of money and efforts in order to find the correct person who is going to implement Knauf successful business style according to the local needs. Knauf group has proven its ability to penetrate, train and lead new markets. As a group it has a promising future as it is in line with the major key successful factors for the industry. Its competitive advantage is very strong and it is implemented into most countries in the world as it is into the Greek market. The industry is highly competitive and it is getting more and more concentrated. In order for Knauf to continue growing into such a competitive environment it needs to diversify its building material portfolio into more developing and profitable markets. Such a market is the insulation material industry in which the group recently invested by acquiring a lot of local producers in Europe and becoming the worlds fastest-growing insulation manufacturer with full ownership of its activities since 2002. Finally, Knauf should invest into countries that are structurally unexploited like for example in Asian or growing African countries initially by securing raw material reserves into strategic places.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Macro and Micro Environment Trends in the Gaming Industry Sony, a highly-technologically driven multinational Japanese corporation, is amongst the leading companies in producing and selling electronics worldwide. Its quality electronic products associated with laptops, mobiles, cameras, video game consoles have enabled them to achieve a significant advantage over its competitors in the aggressively ever-changing technological market. Play Station, Sonys best invention, is one of its prominent electronic devices which have taken Sony to new heights due to its mass consumption and fierce consumer loyalty. As a result, the success of the new Sony Play Station 3 prompted us to focus on how it tends to survive in the market over the next few years. (2011-2013). The current and future environmental scan of Sony Play Station 3 will help us identify several upcoming challenges the cooperation must address in order to maintain their success. Lastly, the geographic area we are focusing on is the impact of Play Station 3 in UAE and how the market for gamers in the Middle East continues to grow. The structure of this report will begin with the designing of the product market structure along with the relevant market where Sony Play Station 3 and its competitors are serving its customers. In addition, we will analyze the external and internal environmental trends that can affect the continuity of the brand. Also, we will focus on other important issues which are likely to arise in the future and shift the focus of segmentation, primary and selective demand, SWOT and competitive analysis. Unquestionably, the 7th generation video game consoles like Play station 3 with a cult following has not only provided Sony with tremendous economic benefits but also an image of being a company that continuous to utilize the improving technology and create such astonishing machines which are being used worldwide. The non-portable and the portable gaming industry are dominated by fierce competitors who adapt successful marketing strategies to divert focus of potential customers from one boundary to another. The relevant market, for non-portable game consoles, in which Sony Play station 3 strives to operate with continuous success along with other recognizable brands offer game console devices with similar features and experiences. We tend to focus on the impact of Sony Play station 3 in the present and the future non-portable gaming console relevant market of United Arab Emirates, next three years (2011-2013), and what strategies it will have to undertake in order to achieve sustaina bility and ensure long-term survival. Baldwin (2010) reports, Tim Stokes, Sales and Marketing Director for PlayStation Division, estimated that gaming in the Middle East is worth up to $1 billion or two per cent of the global market of $45 billion in total international sales. Therefore, it is interesting to see know the Middle East markets contribution to the success of gaming devices and it prompted us to focus on this underrated UAE market that continuous to be a hot prospect in this gaming field. Furthermore, identifying the relevant market for Sony Play Station 3 considers two important factors which are degree of substitutability and managerial perspective will be applied to understand the product market structure. As showcased earlier, our product market structure simplifies the understanding of which product category Play Station 3 and its competitors fall. Even though this market has many other competitors; however, it is being dominated by few due to their fierce mass loyalty. In other words, non-portable game console is a consolidated industry with few dominant market leaders with large market shares and worldwide presence. The first layer which deals with the customer needs mainly is the machines that can support video games. These machines, which are video game supporting devices, are applicable for all types of video games ranging from Arcade to family oriented games. It is then broken down into the second important layer, product class, which is the video gaming console and the personal computer devices where we experience the interactive games. The impact of the improving technology in both personal computers and video game console devices has highly increased the degree of substitutability between the two. This degree of substitutability between PCs and portable/non-portable game consoles in the UAE market is currently very high as both devices are being upgraded to provide similar graphical experiences. In short, the PCs are also doing a very successful job in competing with the 7th generation video game consoles and in taking some of the customers who enjoy playing games suitable with a keyboard and more importantly the mouse. Understanding the degree of substitutability between the game consoles and PC devices is present due to several factors. These factors can range from the perceived benefits, in terms of convenience and price, to the fea tures the superior device has to offer that is compatible with the both games and customers requirements. Moreover, in the third layer, product form, the video game consoles are then separated on the basis of being portable (handheld) and non-portable devices. The degree of substitutability is not likely to be present between the two at current stage in UAE since handheld devices to not provide the same thrilling experience as compared to a game being played on a bigger screen. Also, the portable game console devices with two main devices, PSP and Nintendo 3DS, tend to target a different type of target market which are mainly children. For a hardcore gamer, a big screen experience and competing via social networking is an essential tool which can only be excitingly through the non-portable gaming consoles. However, in the later stage of the report, we will emphasize on the importance of size being now considered as a huge factor in the decision making process and how the movement towards portable video game console devices is on an incline. In short, we will emphasize more on the switchi ng between the boundaries of the relevant market in the implications phase to justify the reasoning of the increased degree of substitutability between the non-portable and portable devices in the coming years. Lastly, Sony Play Station 3 along with its current competitors comes in the last layer, brand specification, under the Sony category that dominates the non-portable game consoles in the relevant market. As mentioned earlier, our report is limited down to the dominance of non-portable gaming devices, and the focus being PS3, and their implications in the coming years. This report will give a detailed analysis of how Sony PS3 can be chosen based on various rational and emotional aspects. Determining the degree of substitutability between the 7th generation gaming consoles that are Sony Play station 3 and X-box 360 is very challenging due to the amazing features they both offer and hence making it difficult for buyers to recognize which one is better. Moreover, this degree of substitutability is supported with the concepts of Primary and more importantly Secondary Demand that aids in the decision making of current and future customers in which console to choose. In addition, the micro a nd macro environmental trends were carefully taken into account to ensure what steps has already been taken to establish a competitive advantage; moreover, the steps Sony Play station 3 will have to consider over the next years in order to stay competitive in its relevant market. In short, our managerial focus is analyzing the successful non-portable devices which belong to these cult brands that are Sony Play Station, Microsoft X-Box and Nintendo. In addition, the managerial focus is highly dependent on the future market of UAE and how Sony Play Station 3 should utilize this market to its maximum potential and understand its current and potential competitors position in the coming years. Furthermore, the relevant market with respect to the non-portable game console devices in which Play Station 3, X-box 360 and Nintendo Wii compete may be saturated with these prominent leaders; however, our research primarily focuses on Play Station 3 and we will try to place its position in the relevant market in the current and next two years. Macro environment Political legal Copyright laws Counterfeit or copied video games and software are prohibited in several countries including the UAE. Different authorities in the UAE are collaborating with one another, foreign governments and with organizations such as Microsoft to capture counterfeit goods of different kinds including video games and software (Oct 19, 2010, Dubai Customs foilsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). The customs inspectors take specialized courses in combating commercial fraud which enables them to uncover any attempts to threaten the national security of the UAE (Oct 19, 2010, Dubai Customs foilsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). According to the IPR -Intellectual Property Rights- department at Dubai customs there were three seizures of counterfeited CDs in 2010 compared to five seizures in 2009 (Oct 19, 2010, Dubai Customs foilsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). In the years to come these laws are going to be more effective due to advances in technologies and the more experienced customs staff and inspectors. Economical The GDP growth in 2009 was 2.7% compared to 2.6 % in 2010 (Central Intelligence Agency, (2011)). The economy is expected to rebound slowly and the challenges faced include dependence on oil, expatriates and greater inflation, the inflation rate in 2010 was 2.2% (Central Intelligence Agency, (2011)). In the next few years the UAE is planning to increase diversification and improve education and private sector employment for the UAE nationals (Central Intelligence Agency, (2011)). The economic crisis had a negative effect on income which is considered to be a main determinant when buying a game console since the price of the consoles can be high. The economic crisis is expected to be reduced in the next few years, the GDP increased from 2009 to 2010, and following that income may rise and more customers become able to purchase game consoles. Sociocultural Statistics from the ESA -Entertainment Software Association- show that in the United States 25% of game players are less than 18 years old, 49% in the age group 18 49 and 26% 50 and older ((2010). Essential Facts aboutÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). Also, 64% of the gamers play video games with other persons which is a higher number than in 2008 and 2009 ((2010). Essential Facts aboutÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). Parents participate with their children in playing video games as 48% play video games with their children ((2010). Essential Facts aboutÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). The reason for this participation includes fun for the whole family and socializing with the children ((2010). Essential Facts aboutÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). We can relate these statistics to the demographics in the UAE as 78.7% of the population is in the age group 15 64. The percentage of video gamers differs of course but in the UAE most of the gamers will probably fall in the age group 15 30.Video games and video game consoles in particular are beco ming more users friendly and as in the Nintendo Wii there are games that target the whole family and children. In the future more video games and technologies like the ones that exist in the Nintendo Wii are going to be introduced. These video games will appeal to a wide range of demographics of both genders. Technological Augmented reality Augmented reality is a new technology that is very popular today and a technology that is still being developed (Wen, H., Jan 26, 2010). In video game consoles augmented reality can be seen in the play station eye toy where images from the real world such as the user and display it on a computer screen (Wen, H., Jan 26, 2010). Then the user is able to interact with virtual objects on the screen through software (Wen, H., Jan 26, 2010). The annual sales of augmented reality are expected to rise from approximately 1 million in 2209 to 732 million in 2014 (Wen, H., Jan 26, 2010). The technology still faces several limitations but developers and researchers are improving and developing the technology (Wen, H., Jan 26, 2010). The researchers are trying to integrate real world images with graphics instead of just displaying them on a computer screen ((n.d.), How Augmented Reality Will Work). This technology will create a feeling of the five senses and separate the users from computer gener ated graphics ((n.d.), How Augmented Reality Will Work). Motion sensing game controllers The Nintendo Wii was introduced with a motion sensor called the Wiimote which can track movement and positions (Sung, K., Feb 2011). The technology was simple and proved that well engineered technologies with appealing games can be very profitable (Sung, K., Feb 2011). The Nintendo Wii was cheaper than Xbox and PS3 and it was considered a success (Sung, K., Feb 2011). Following this success Nintendo introduced the Wii Motion Plus which is an attachment to the Wiimote that improves accuracy and response time (Sung, K., Feb 2011). Sony reacted to this success by releasing the Playstation Move which is a motion controller for the PS3. Sonys motion controller was more accurate than Nintendos controller and acquired reputation quickly (Sung, K., Feb 2011). After that the Xbox released its Xbox Kinect system in 2010 which contains state of the art technologies (Sung, K., Feb 2011). The system is a USB accessory for the existing Xbox 360 instead of being a whole new game console (Sung, K., Feb 2011). This shows that video game consoles manufacturers are moving towards technologies and devices based on human computer interface (Sung, K., Feb 2011). The next generation of video game consoles Video game consoles can be categorized in seven generations depending on the technologies introduced with each console. PS3, Xbox 360 and Nintedo Wii are considered to be in the seventh generation (Miller, M., Apr 1, 2005). The next generation is predicted to be more powerful with increased graphical power which will increase the costs of making games for the consoles (Morris, C., 12 Jun 2009). The costs are expected to rise from 20 30 million to 60 million per game (Morris, C., 12 Jun 2009). The higher development costs of video games raise the cost of video game consoles manufacturing (Morris, C., 12 Jun 2009). Onlive is a company that is attempting to stream video games directly to the computer or TV through the users internet connection at home (Morris, C., 12 Jun 2009). The technology is early but promising and can increase the life cycle of the current game consoles (Morris, C., 12 Jun 2009). However, this technology can be present in the next generation consoles. The next gen eration is expected to arrive in 2011 or 2012 as mentioned by Yves Guillemont the CEO of Ubisoft -video game developer- (Yam , M., January 23, 2009). Micro environment Consumer Behavior As mentioned earlier, Sonys target market segment, of the Play Station 3, is gamers, particularly teens or adolescents; Teens and young adults are the main contributors to the high sales revenue being generated by the Sony Corporation through the gaming console. A common purchasing ideology in the UAE, shared by most of its citizens, is having or owning the latest technology or releases of electronic equipment; this might have been an influencing factor in Sonys decision of having significant stock inventory be made available to local retailers, safeguarding against shortages that have frustrated retailers based in launch markets such as Japan and the United States (Nov. 30, 2010, GITEX Showcases Convergence). Such preparations, although in 2006, suggest that the corporation viewed the UAE as a demanding market. Four years following the release of the PS3, sales of the console or its updates continues, with stock being replenished in major stores such as Carrefour and electronics stores such as Jackys. In 2008, it has been reported that the UAE gaming console market has achieved Dhs17.78m sales from January to MayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦with 4.448 million units sold and the PS3 dominating the UAE console market with 59% (Aug. 16, 2008, UAE Gaming Con sole SalesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦). Having achieved such a success back in 2008, and without the existence of present statistics on its current sales rate, it is safe to assume that the UAE consumer market continues to grow in favor of the PS3 and by 2012 the UAE consumer market will still be into buying the PS3. By 2013, though, with the forecasted advent of Sonys new console, the PS4, there might be a decrease in the sales of the PS3. Yet, the release of the new console might not affect the sales in an entirely negative manner; with the introduction of the PS4 to the market, the price of a PS3 would decrease making it more affordable for consumers who were not able to purchase it when sales were at its peak. Also, the introduction of a new console into the market, according to Summers, the previous system still has a lot of value because the new one is still going to be able to play your old games, and because the old one is still going to have new games released for it (Summers, n.d.). Hence, this ensures that UAE sales of the PS3 are to continue, with a little depreciation, despite the introduction of the PS4. However, the UAE consumer market may exhibit a low demand to no demand for the PS3 by 2014, depending on the release of the PS4. If released in late 2012/ early 2013, the new console would have a year to achieve its success and take control of the gaming console market, due to the promised advanced technology it is to offer and the improvement of the real life gaming experience that is being offered by the PS3. Hence, 2014 may be the year where the PS3 takes the bench in the UAE market. Nature of Buying Decision The PS3 targets hardcore gamers, who would want to feel as though they are part of the game. Hence, the specifications offered with the console, such as Hi-Definition gaming graphics which makes the games as realistic as possible, and so on. However, the PS3 does come with a hefty price tag, making it a hard choice for those who would want to purchase it since similar specifications can be found on other consoles that are much cheaper. This is the point of buyer motivation. The PS3, most of the time, releases games that are considered to be exclusive to the consoles, hence maintaining the consoles uniqueness. Furthermore, other incentives are offered with the console, such as a Blu-Ray player, allowing the user to watch movies of outstanding graphical quality and clarity without having to purchase a separate player to indulge themselves in such an experience. Hence, Sony provides its gamers and consumers with a complete package with the PS3. The United Arab Emirates houses some of the most hardcore gamers and currently marked itself as a major gaming market. Hence, since the console offers so much potential along with extras, such as those mentioned above, easily capture a purchasers attention in this country. Also, gamers in this country like to look for the unique gaming experience, and this is exactly what the PS3 offers. Moreover, elsewhere, the hefty price tag would have been a factor influencing the choice. Yet, the UAEs rebound from the recession, along with the technology owning competitive nature of its citizens, helps maintain the current growth in sales of the PS3 as well as the sales for the next two years. Loyalty Segments Having previously released two consoles, the PS1 and PS2, which satisfied their consumers and entertained them beyond measure, Sony is able to secure their loyal fans. The PS3s release into the market was already a guaranteed success due to the reputation earned by its predecessors in the gaming world. All that was needed to attract the attention of the consumers was a change in the console design, making it sleeker and easier on the eyes, and a slight change in the gaming experience previously offered, such as smoother interface, introduction of a complete operating system housing all the consumer needs, and better graphic drivers to make the games resemble reality. Many of the people who purchased a PS3 in the UAE have previously owned, at least, the PS2. Moreover, since the PS2 has been a success in the UAE as well as the region, according to Yasuhide Yokota (Computer Gaming Major SonyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦), the country has a large and loyal fan base, in turn assuring the PS3s growth in sales within the next two years. Competition The PS3s current market rivals, in the UAE, are Microsofts Xbox 360 and the Nintendos Wii, even though the latter does not pose as an obstacle since it does not come with half of what the PS3 has to offer to the UAE gamers. Gamers in the UAE seem to have two main interests when it comes to console gaming: Football/ Soccer and racing games. Hence, it is the Xbox 360 that is considered to be a threat to the PS3 since it offers almost all the unique gaming experience specifications, such as high resolution graphics and smooth real life play, as well as the most demanded games, for a cheaper price. In addition, having mentioned the UAEs consumer markets tendency to constantly purchase newer technology and devices, another one of PS3s competitors, although a product of the corporation, is to be the PS4, which is forecasted to be released on Q4 of 2012 or Q1 of 2013 (Naik, 2011) as per the release timeline of the PS3 and its predecessors, even though no official release dates have been mentioned by Sony. Since the PS4 is to be an 8th generation console, it is going to offer advanced technology and better gaming experiences than the PS3 making it a target product for the countrys consumers. Moreover, games are a major influence in the choice of consoles for the consumers in the UAE. Game manufacturers offer their services to all the consoles mentioned above, but these games could differ slightly, as with the case of the PS3 and the Xbox. Since the PS3 and Xbox fight over control, in the graphical aspects, such as real-life gaming experiences, the enabling of high definition game-play and use of surround sound, and other such characteristics that complete the advertised and highly anticipated gaming experience, Sony keeps their consumers through the introduction of exclusive gaming experiences such as the introduction of games that cannot be played other than on the PS3 and such, as well as creating games with titles in Arabic to accommodate and further satisfy the UAEs market. Porters 5 forces Having laid out Porters strategy, in general, for the PS3, relating it to the console and the market of the UAE over a time frame of the next three years is as follows: Threat of Substitutes: As mentioned above, computer games/ PC games pose as substitute to console gaming in general, and it is gaining popularity within the UAE. However, computer games do not offer the same gaming experience that the PS3 has to offer, and are only interesting when played online. This gives the PS3, as well as its console competitors, an advantage; interactive online and offline gaming experiences. Moving on towards the console competitors, the PS3 has been able to establish its place in the market due to offering more as a package, than the Xbox 360 and the Wii, for a price that is within the range of the other consoles, and shares the same life-span, which is an estimate of 10 years. Moreover, with the release of the Wii 2 (2012-2013) which is to have Hi-Def graphics, the price for that console will be higher than the PS3, in turn allowing future consumers and current ones to purchase or remain with the PS3 which offers the same, if not more, level of graphics. Threat of New Entrants: Until the 3rd quarter of 2012, the competition for the PS3 remains the same: Microsofts Xbox 360 and Nintendos Wii. Furthermore, since Microsoft has released that the corporation has no intention of releasing a new console (Dumitrescu, 2009), the PS3 will maintain its current position in the UAE market. By the 4th quarter of 2012 or the 1st quarter of 2013, however, Sony is expected to release the PS4 (n.d., PS4 Release DateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦), following the trend set by their previous console releases, which would pose as the PS3s newest competitor, and by the end of 2013 it might relieve the PS3 of its domination of the UAE market. The Intensity of Competitive Rivalry: Within a year (by 2012), the PS3 and the Xbox will definitely have games that exploit their graphical abilities to a great extent. However, since the PS3s entire potential has not been wielded yet (n.d., PS4 Release DateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦), the chances are that the UAE market is going to stay with the PS3 since the games released then will/ might require specifications more than what the Xbox 360 has to offer, specifications-wise. In addition, further development of the Playstation Eye will take place, maybe perfecting the flaws of interactive-reality gaming, which takes the Wii out of the equation. Despite the release of the PS4 by the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013 though, the PS3 will remain to have a stronghold of the market, for then the price of the PS3 is going to decrease and the games offered by PS4 are going to be similar to those available for the PS3, allowing consumers to enjoy the same degree of gaming quality that the PS4 has t o offer. However, through the course of the year, after the PS4 might have had its time to position it-self in the market, newer games, that might exceed the potentials offered by the PS3, will attract the consumers. Bargaining Power of Buyers: This will remain the same over the next three years, for the market is controlled by the three console manufacturers. Until the release of the PS4 and Wii 2, the UAE market is to be the same as it is now. By 2013, when the new consoles are released onto the market, the prices of the PS3 and the Wii will depreciate, in turn forcing the Xbox 360s prices to decrease as well. However, since Nintendos history shows that the introduction of new consoles is synonymous with the halting of production games and gadgets for previous ones, and Sony has done otherwise with the PS3s predecessors (Summers, n.d.), then consumers will consider the PS3 as a safer investment. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Since the competition is set, and the games sold are similar if not the same for each of the consoles, then the UAE market would remain the same for the next three years, even with the release of new consoles. Stakeholders analysis PS3 Customer Implications PlayStation 4 is expected to have great demand if prices are reasonably high compared to the price of ps3 in an effort to provide as many customers as possible with the opportunity to purchase PlayStation 4. By launching play station 4, consumers will by buying more PS4s than Xbox 360s and Wiis as a result Sony will lead the market for coming years. PS3 Environment Implications These are the plans for the next 3 years regarding the Environment in UAE. Sonys Environmental Plan Road to Zero Green Management 2013 Green Management 2013 Environmental Management Structure Campaigns and advertisements boosting these plans and events will enhance Sonys image in UAE as the brand appears as an environmentally friendly product as a result as the demand for the brand increases demand for ps3 will also rise. These CSR and environment protection activities are costly and will put on a rise to the price of Sony products and therefore the increase in cost will be pushed to the price of ps4 when launched. PS3 Community Implications: Sony is expecting to have a positive impact in the coming 3 years through CSR activities by powering its products and business activities globally. PS3s indulgence in CSR activates is likely to enhance its image in the long run as it will be perceived as a device which not only is entertaining but also environmental friendly. PS3 Distribution Channel Implications Distribution cost will fall in the coming years, consumers will have more pleasant shopping experience more specialized stores and sales people who know exactly what the customers are looking for. Consumers will also start seeing Sony Retailer Network logo in Ads and POS displays. The more enhanced shopping experience will also increase the demand for Sony and therefore result in higher prices in the coming years. Implications over the next three Years Unfortunately, the boundaries of the Product market structure have already been broken due to several technological and socio-cultural factors. The increased substitutability is happening because of the demographics in UAE have evolved and are always looking for the devices that can offer the best gaming experience. The first implication which is likely to increase over the next years is the emphasis on improving gaming portable devices such as Nintendo 3DS which was introduced in UAE in the first quarter of 2011. The owners of Nintendo 3DS understood the new socio-cultural trends ,which is currently enjoying the 3d technology, and created this device for users who want the 3d experience in a smaller screen without the usage of any glasses. Nintendo 3DS being the first ones to provide the gaming experience in 3d had created an enormous amount of buzz in the market; hence, the same idea is now being applied by other companies. Sony Play station 3 owners are yet to utilize this 3d technology; however, in order to compete in this portable gaming industry, Sony will introduce Sony NGP (PSP 2) in early 2012 that will provide an unbelievable gaming experience in small screens. UAE Distributers will vigorously promote NGP towards the launch as the next generation portable entertainment platform and dep loy various measures to further expand the portable gaming market. (Stuart, 2011). Sonys strategy of introducing NGP can provide them with a competitive edge in the portable gaming market; however, only time will tell if they had succeeded. Secondly, the surprising success of portable PC devices like iPad and iPad 2 in the UAE market have created a very unique set of games with a large fan following. The games in the iPad are relatively easier to play and can be very addictive. Moreover, Blackberry that has been a global phenomenon with mass consumption in the Middle East market are introducing its own graphic tablet, with its own official set of games, by the name of Blackberry playbook in the end of 2011 and hence making the portable gaming devices industry more demanding and competitive. (Shuey, 2010). In short, the games in these graphic tablets like iPad and Blackberry which are more motion and movement oriented has solidified their position as a serious competitor in the portable gaming industry for PCs. Thirdly, the improving features of the non-portable personal computers is another major threat which are designed for hard-core gamers who want enormous storage capacity features along with its incredible graphical experience. A perfect example of such computers which provide similar graphical experiences to PS3 and Xbox is Dells Alienware. Alienware might have been launched by Dell in 2008; however, it can support all playstation3 and xbox 360 games making their presence highly competitive in the market. Moreover, it is being upgraded and reintroduced on frequent basis unlike Playstation 3 which takes longer time for its next version to launch. The usage of mouse and keyboards makes the PC industry still a fierce competitor as games will always require fast and accurate hand movements that can only be used on PCs. In addition, PCs are also very economical due to the latest games which can be downloaded on the internet for free as opposed to PS3 games which can be very costly and can take months to arrive. Also, the restrictions of certain popular games with high sexual and violent content are banned by the UAE government; therefore, the PC gamers can enjoy the internet service and can quickly download and play
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Joys of Planning a Wedding The verdict is in - I will only get married once. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always felt that in my heart, but the experience of planning my wedding removed any doubts that I may have had. The process of planning a wedding is so extensive and involved that once the process has started, there is no turning back. You will be completely absorbed in the ins and outs of the entire day from that point forward. While the main focal point should be the actual ceremony uniting the man and woman, that is rarely the case. There are so many details to work out from the color scheme to the reception menu that you have no option but to stay completely focused. Anyone that has been involved in planning a wedding before will tell you that once you get the Ã¢â¬Å"big fourÃ¢â¬ out of the way youÃ¢â¬â¢re almost home free. The Ã¢â¬Å"big fourÃ¢â¬ in the wedding planning world are: deciding where the ceremony will be held, choosing a reception venue, deciding which dresses will be worn, and planning the ho neymoon. Deciding where the ceremony will be held is one of the first things you need to do when planning a wedding. You need to decide first and foremost whether or not you want a church wedding. If you are a member of a particular church, your first instinct will be to hold the wedding at your church. You have to be certain that the church will be able to accommodate the number of guests youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be inviting to attend. Does the church have any specific rules against music or decorations? You do...